Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Academyc year when starting the degree: 
Academyc year when helding the course: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (40 hours), Exercise (6 hours), Laboratory (8 hours)

Students should possess basic knowledge of Biochemistry and have passed the exam of Physiology.

A written test (essay-based) will be administered at the end of the course. It will be based on 3 questions chosen among all the topics presented during the course. Specifically, one will concern a topic of pharmacokinetics, one will assess student's knowledge on drug-receptor interactions and the last one will focus on the different molecular targets of drugs.
Students must score at least 18/30 in order to pass the test.

Voto Finale

Students will understand fundamental principles of pharmacology as related to the mechanisms of drug action, biodistribution and metabolism.
On successful completion of the course, students will be able to:
1. describe the processes by which the body can affect the fate of pharmacological agents (i.e. pharmacokinetics);
2. describe quantitative and qualitative aspects of
drug–receptor Interactions;
3. describe the most important targets for drug action

Lectures (5 CFU 40 hours)
- Essential lexicon of Pharmacology and a short history of Pharmacology. Research and Development of New Drugs
- Pharmacokinetics. Drug Absorption and Administration Routes. Drug Distribution. Drug Metabolism and Elimination
- Proteins as drug targets. Drugs and Enzymes. Drugs and Transporters. Drugs and Ion Channels.
- Drug–Receptor Interactions: Quantitative and Qualitative Aspects. Receptors and Modulation of Their Response. Dose/Response curves. Relationship between drug-receptor interaction and response.
- Receptor analysis techniques (binding, receptor functionality)
Receptor classes. Drugs and ligand-gated ion channels. Drugs and G protein-coupled receptors. Drugs and receptors for growth factors. Drugs and intracellular/intranuclear receptors

Practical activities (1 CFU, 6 hours of exercises and 8 hours of laboratory)
Three selected practical activities in pharmacology for demonstration of basic principles of drug actions will be set up for students (they will be divided in subgroups).
1 Description and analysis of ligand-receptor binding experiments
2 Description and analysis of a pre-clinical study set up to investigate antianxiety activity of new compounds
3 Immunohistochemical techniques to monitor the induction of immediately early genes in brain sections after manipulation of specific glutamatergic receptors

The following reference textbook is recommended: F. Clementi e G. Fumagalli “ Farmacologia generale e molecolare” IV edizione aggiornata EDRA

The course includes lectures (5 CFU) and practical activities (1 CFU).
During lectures slides will be used. Students will find slides on the e-learning website.
The practical activities will be held in Busto Arsizio. Attendance of practical lessons is mandatory. Students are allowed to miss one activity only.