Degree course: 
Corso di Long single cycle degree (6 years) in Medicine and Surgery
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 

Students approaching the course of General Pathology should possess good knowledge of the anatomo-histological basis of tissues and organs, the biochemical basis of cell homeostasis and of Immunology.
General basis of the physiological processes of tissue functioning should also be at hand.

Written exam with multiple choise questions

Voto Finale

The course of General Pathology is carried out during the first semester of the third year of Medical School. Through this course, students will acquire the basic knowledge of modern pathology both at the cellular and molecular level expanding on the pathological processes of multicellular organs and tissues. Particular emphasis is given to the mechanisms of cell death, apoptosis and necrosis, and to inflammatory process and representative diseases associated to either acute and/or chronic inflammation. Moreover large part of the course is dedicated to the neoplastic transformation, its molecular and cellular correlates and to the metastatic spread of cancer cells

Lecture titles in General Pathology

Cell damage and cell death: programmed cell death or Apoptosis
a. morphological changes of apoptotic cells
b. death receptors
c. apoptotic signal and activation of intracellular apoptotic program
d. caspases
e. DNA fragmentation
f. Clearing of apoptotic cells

Cell damage and cell death: Necrosis
a. pathologic events causing cell necrosis
b. morphologica changes of necrotic cells
c. mechanisms of necrosis: ubiquitination, ATP depletion, alteration in Calcium homeostasis, active oxygen and nitrogen radicals
d. the defence against oxidative stress

The response to the lesion: Inflammation
a. leukocyte migration, endothelia adhesion, migration, chemotaxis, role of cytokines and chemokines
b. Acute Inflammation: causes, phases and modalities
c. wounded healing
d. acute inflammation generated by IgE-mediated allergy
e. Chronic Inflammation: chronic lesions, chronic inflammation derived from persistent acute inflammation, primary chroni inflammation
f. Chronic inflammation in tuberculosis: genesis and nature of the granuloma

Pathogenesis of aquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
a. receptors and coreceptors of HIV; mechanism of viral entry and viral spreading
b. diversity in susceptility to HIV infection
c. viral gene products and their action on host cell homeostasis
d. growth and amplification of virus infection during the preclinical stage
e. pathogenesis of CD4-positive cell distruction

Pathogenesis of cell division and cell differentiation
a. control of cell proliferation
b. Hyperlasia, hypoplasia, atrophy, hypertrophy and metaplasia

a. physical, chemical and environmental carcinogenesis
b. tumor initiators and tumor promoters
c. multistep carcinogenesis
d. tumor epidemiology
e. differentiation and control of tumor growth oncogenic viruses
f. oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes: discovery, structure and mechanism of action
g. oncogenic viruses

The metastastic process: mechanism of action, molecular and cellular correlates

Host defences against tumors
a. non specific defence against cancer cells
b. antigenicity and immunogenicity of tumor cells
c. mechanisms of tumor elusion/evasion from immunological recognition
d. humoral and cellular responses against tumor cells
e. new strategies for biological therapies and pharmacological therapies against cancer

1. Robbins e Cotran: Pathologic basis of Disease, 8a o 9a Edition, EDRA Elsevier publisher

2. Pontieri, Russo, Frati: Patologia Generale e Fisiopatologia Generale, V edizione, Piccin Editore

3. R.A. Weinberg: The Biology of Cancer (solo in inglese), Garland Science Editor

Lessons ex cathedra.
Journal Clubs in which a selected number of students (2-4) prepare and present to their peers the content of a particularly important published paper

The teacher outlines that the various textbooks cited represent material of information, formation and expansion of the course. The major elaboration of the arguments will be however performed during the ex cathedra lessons.