# PHYSICS 2

Prerequisite

Basic knowledge of calculus: functions, derivatives, integrals and vectors. The students of Mathematics must have passed the Physics I examination.

Objectif of the course and expected learning results

The main goal of the course is to provide the students a basic knowledge of the fundaments of electromagnetism.

Program of the course

1. Electric force and electric field (8 hours)

- The Coulomb law. Definition of the electric field and its visualization by field lines.

- Electric field generated by discrete / continuous distribution of charges. Examples of the electric dipole, the uniformly charged ring, disc, and plane.

- Derivation of the Gauss law from the Coulomb law. Applications of the Gauss law.

- Motion of a point charge in uniform electric field.

- Conductor in electrostatic equilibrium. The Faraday cage.

2. Electric potential and capacitance (8 hours)

- Definition of the electric potential. Relation between the field and the electric potential. Potential energy of a system of charges.

- Capacitors and definition of capacitance. Calculation of the capacitance of a plane, a spherical and a cylindrical capacitor.

- Electrostatic energy stored in a charged capacitor, the electric field energy.

- Combination of capacitors in a circuit in series and in parallel, calculation of the equivalent capacitance.

- Capacitors with dielectrics, qualitative discussion.

3. Currents and circuit with stationary current (6 ore)

- Definition of the electrical current. Elementary microscopic model.

- Resistance and Ohmâ€™s law. Electrical energy and power.

- Resistance in series and in parallel. Electromotive force. Kirchhoffâ€™s laws for the analysis of steady state circuits.

- Charge and discharge of a capacitor (the RC circuit).

4 Starionary magnetic fields (10 hours)

- Definition of the magnetic field. The Lorentz law.

- Motion of a point charge in magnetic field. Example of the mass spectroscope.

- Magnetic force acting on a current-carrying conductor. Torque on a current loop in a uniform magnetic field - analogies with the electric dipole. The galvanometer.

- The Biot-Savart law. Calculation of the magnetic field from a rectilinear conductor and from a circular current loop. The magnetic force between two parallel conductors.

- Magnetic property of materials. The atomic magnetic moment and its quantization.

- The Ampereâ€™s law and its application. The magnetic field of a solenoid.

- The Hall effect.

5 Time-varying magnetic fields (8 hours)

- Experiments with time-varying magnetic field. The induction law of Faraday and the Lens law.

- Examples of dynamically induced electromotive force.

- Relation between the electromotive induced force and the electric field.

- Self-induced electromagnetic force. Self-inductance of a current loop. The RL circuit.

- The generalized Ampereâ€™s law and the definition of displacement current. Maxwell equations in vacuum.

- Propagation of a plane electromagnetic wave in vacuum.

-The Hertz experiment: production of e.m. waves from an antenna.

Type of didactic activities

Lectures and exercises.

Reference texts and teaching material

- Lecture notes from the teacher.

- Recommended text book:

Halliday, Resnick, Walker, Fondamenti di Fisica, (Chapters 22 -32,34)

Casa editrice Ambrosani.

Serway, Principi di Fisica, Volume 2, EdiSES (Chapters 19-24)

Verification of learning skills

The examination consists in a written and in an oral test. The written test has the goal to verify the capacity of the student to solve elementary problems of electromagnetism and its passing is required for the oral examination. The latter consists in an in-depth verification of the knowledge of electromagnetism acquired by the student during the course.

## Borrowed from

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