Università degli studi dell'Insubria

Fundamentals of chemistry (analytical chemistry laboratory)

Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in ENVIRONMENTAL AND NATURAL SCIENCES
Academyc year when starting the degree: 
2014/2015
Year: 
1
Academyc year when helding the course: 
2014/2015
Course type: 
Basic compulsory subjects
Credits: 
6
Period: 
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
184
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (24 hours), Laboratory (160 hours)
Requirements: 

Knowledge of General and Inorganic Chemistry, and Organic Chemistry is recommended.

Assessment: 
Voto Finale

Aims and learning outcomes
The course is divided into two parts : Environmental Chemistry (Module A) and Applied Analytical Chemistry (Module B), (each module of 6 CFU). In this way, an integrated and synergic approach to Environmental and Analytical Chemistry will be provided.

MODULE A – ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY
At the end of this part the student will know:
- Main aspects of environmental pollution by chemicals
- The principal organic and inorganic chemicals of environmental concern
- How to assess and interpret the problems of chemical pollution

MODULE B – APPLIED ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
The basic principles of the modern instrumental techniques for the environmental analysis will be presented and discussed. Particular attention will be focussed onto the “in-situ” techniques, as well as speciation and sampling aspects. In this way, the student will be able to use and evaluate the modern analytical techniques as well as interact with the analytical chemist in the field and in the analytical lab.

Evaluation
MODULE A – ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY
The student evaluation for the Module A is derived from an oral examination on student answers in a preliminary written test (2-3 questions). The evaluation of the written or oral test is expressed in /30.

MODULE B – APPLIED ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
The final examination will be oral.
The student will have to demonstrate her/his knowledge on the topics presented in the classroom, as well as her/his ability to discuss such topics in an interdisciplinary manner.
The final mark in 30th will be the average of the two marks for the 1° and the 2° module.

MODULE A – ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY

Introduction to Environmental Chemistry: Main problems of chemical pollution. European REACH regulation of chemicals. Dynamic interactions of water-soil-air phases.
Water: physico-chemical properties of water in the environment. The CO2/H2O system. Parameters for the water quality classification: Physical and Chemical properties (pH, BOD, hardness, ecc.) Complexation and chelation with synthetic (phosphate, EDTA, ecc) and natural (humic acids) ligands. Surfactants. Ion-exchange resins. Municipal water treatment. Wastewater treatment.
Soil: physico-chemical characteristic of geosphere. Soil and its constituents. Sediments. Chemical sorption parameters. Environmental distribution/partition coefficients. Fertilizers and nutrients.
Main organic and inorganic pollutants: Natural and anthropogenic organic pollutants: hydrocarbons aliphatic and aromatic, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), Poly-Chloro-Biphenyls (PCB), dioxins, pesticides, emerging pollutants (endocrine disruptors, fluorinated compounds, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, nanoparticles, ecc.), metals and organo-metallics.
Biodegradations and photodegradations: Main biotransformation reactions of chemicals by microorganisms. Main photochemical degradations. Their role in environmental remediation.
Air: structure and composition of the atmosphere layers. Gaseous inorganic pollutants: CO, CO2, SO2, NOx. Greenhouse. Acidic rains. Stratospheric ozone depletion . CFC and substitutes. Other ozone depletion gases. Photochemical smog. Particulate matter (PM).
QSAR modeling: Introduction and basis. Examples of application of predictive QSAR modeling to relevant problems of environmental pollution and toxicity of organic chemicals.

MODULE B – APPLIED ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
The student will learn the theoretical basis and the applications of modern instrumental analytical techniques.
Particular emphasis will be given to in-situ techniques and their application to environmental analysis.
1) Calibration – Linear regression, standard addition, external standard. Statistics of calibration : LOD, LOQ,LOL. (6h)
2) Sampling - Sampling, sample stabilization, sample pretreatment. (6h)
3) Elemental and Speciation analysis- Selected aspects of speciation in environment. Combustion Elemental analysis. (6h)
4) Electroanalytical techniques : conductimetry, potentiometry, amperometry, voltammetry. Environmental applications. (2h)
5)Spectrometry and spectrophotometry : molecular spectroscopy (UV-vis, NDIR, DOAS); atomic spectroscopy (AAS, ICP) Lambert-Beer quantitation, elemental and molecular analysis, environmental applications. (8h)
6) Cromatography – general aspects, GC, HPLC, detector selection, practical aspects of selected environmental analysis. (8h)
7) Mass spectrometry in environmental analysis : dating, isotope analysis, molecular recognition, hyphenation with optical emission and cromatography. (8h)
8) Selected applications – analysis of organic compounds (pesticides, POP’s, VOC’s, etc.). Inorganic analysis. Water, Ice, food analysis. (4h)

MODULE A – ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY
- Slides available on e-learning platform or on www.qsar.it
- C. Baird M. Cann“Chimica Ambientale” Zanichelli, 2006 (suggested textbook)
- S. E.Manahan “Chimica dell’Ambiente” Ed. It. Piccin, 2000 (consultation text)

MODULE B – APPLIED ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
- W.Fifield and P.J.Haines, Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Blackie Academic and Professional
- photocopies and technical papers supplied by the tutor during the course.

Convenzionale