COSMOLOGIA

Degree course: 
Corso di Second cycle degree in Physics
Academic year when starting the degree: 
2013/2014
Year: 
1
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
2013/2014
Course type: 
Supplementary compulsory subjects
Credits: 
6
Period: 
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
48
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (48 hours)
Requirements: 

It is not required knowledge in astronomy and Astrophysics field, nor of general relativity. The prior course attendance of Astrophysics I is recommended anyway. Thestudent must possess the basics, at the level of Bachelor degree in Physics, Mechanics, Newtonian theory of gravitation, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, atomic physics, elementary particle physics, and radiative phenomena.

Assessment: 
Voto Finale

The course aims to provide basic knowledge of Modern Cosmology to an introductory level. The student must master different aspects of this sport at grassroots level, and be able to analyze the topics covered in the course.

1 FUNDAMENTAL OBSERVATIONS
1.1 the darkness of the night sky
1.2 Isotropy and homogeneity
1.3 Hubble's Law
1.4 particles types
1.5 The bottom of microwave

2 EINSTEIN'S THEORY of GRAVITATION
2.1 equivalence principle
2.2 the curvature of spacetime
2.3 The Robertson-Walker metric
2.4 the distance and quantities comoving
2.5 Overview of the theoretical formulation of general relativity

2 COSMIC DYNAMICS
3.1 Friedmann equation
3.2 The acceleration equation and the fluid equation
3.3 Equations of State in Cosmology
3.4 the cosmological constant Λ

4 SOLUTIONS OF FRIEDMANN EQUATION
4.1 evolution of energy density
4.2 Universe of pure bending
4.3 spatially flat Universe with one component
4.4 Universe dominated by matter
4.5 Universe dominated by radiation
4.6 Universe dominated by Λ
4.7 Universe dominated by matter+ bend
4.8 Universe Λ + matter
4.9 Universe matter + bend + Λ
4.10 Of radiation + matter
4.11 The "concordance model"

5 MEASUREMENT of COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETERS
5.1 The "search for two numbers"
5.2 luminosity distance
5.3 angular distance
5.4 standard candles and the Hubble constant
5.5 standard candles and the acceleration of the expansion of the universe

6 DARK MATTER
6.1 visible matter
6.2 dark matter in galaxies
6.3 dark Matter in the galaxy clusters
6.4 Gravitational Lensing
6.5 Hypothesis about the nature of dark matter

7 THE COSMIC MICRO-WAVE BACKGROUND
7.1 Observations of the CMB
7.2 recombination and decoupling
7.3 The physics of recombination
7.4 temperature Fluctuations
7.5 kinetic theory of fluctuations
7.6 origin of fluctuations and determination of cosmological parameters

8 THE PRIMORDIAL UNIVERSE
8.1 spontaneous symmetry Breakings
8.2 the era of phase transitions
8.3 hadrons era
8.4 the era of leptons: the cosmic neutrino background
8.5 primordial Nucleosynthesis
8.5.1 Synthesis of deuterium
8.5.2 Synthesis of helium
8.5.3 Synthesis of primordial metals
8.6 Baryons-antibaryons asymmetry

9 THE INFLATION
9.1 problem of flatness
9.2 the horizon problem
9.3 the problem of magnetic monopoles
9.4 inflationary solution
9.5 inflation physic

10 THE FORMATION of LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE
10.1 The gravitational instability
10.2 theory of Jeans
10.3 instability in an expanding universe
10.4 Instability of not collisional matter
10.4.1 Free-streaming
10.4.2 Violent relaxation
10.5 Growth fluctuations baryonic
10.5.1 thermalization time
10.5.2 molecular and Atomic cooling Cooling
10.6 the power spectrum of fluctuations of dark matter
10.7 cold dark matter, hot, and hierarchical clustering

Lectures with exercises in class. Depending on events in the calendar, students are advised to follow seminars and/or conferences on relevant themes.

The course is based on the text "Introduction to Cosmology by b. Ryden", as well as handouts and material provided by the lecturer.
Oral examination with brief monothematic advanced search on topic agreed with the student.

Professors