CHIMICA GENERALE

Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Chemical Sciences and Technologies
Academic year when starting the degree: 
2013/2014
Year: 
1
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
2013/2014
Credits: 
15
Period: 
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
132
Requirements: 

GENERAL CHEMISTRY

MOD. A

Prerequisites:

The course is conducted in the first semester and requires no special prerequisites except the basics of physics and mathematics from high school courses.

MOD. B

Prerequisites:

The course is conducted in the first semester and requires no special prerequisites except the basics of physics and mathematics from high school courses.

Assessment: 
Voto Finale

GENERAL CHEMISTRY

MOD. A

Teaching objectives and expected learning outcomes:

The course, in conjunction with General Chemistry (B), aims to provide students with the basic knowledge of chemistry and scientific method. At the end of course the student will have learned the basic chemical principles concerning the structure of the atom, the periodic properties of the elements, the nature of the chemical bond (ionic and covalent) and the intermolecular forces. Moreover, the student will be able to understand a chemical reaction in its components of matter and energy, and will have learned the principles governing the chemical equilibrium and the rate of a reaction. With the knowledge gained, the student will then be able to follow successfully the advanced chemistry courses.

MOD.B

Teaching objectives and expected learning outcomes:

The course, conducted in parallel with "General Chemistry (A)" in the first part provides the student with knowledge concerning the interaction forces between atoms, ions and molecules and the understanding of a chemical change in its matter and energy balance. The goal is to ensure the student learning the body of knowledge necessary to follow the following courses. In short, the basic concepts will be introduced such that atomic mass and molecular mass, of mole and molar mass, with reference to the various formulas of chemical compounds (minimum formula, molecular and structural). Will be subsequently processed quantitative aspects of solutions in chemical reactions, with particular reference to the various expressions of the concentration of a solution. Will be proposed and discussed the laws that govern the gaseous state (ideal gas) and the properties of ideal solutions (colligative properties). Finally, a certain importance will be given to the study of equilibria in aqueous solution (acids and bases, salts, solubility equilibria). In order to provide the students all the necessary tools to be able to acquire the knowledge necessary, will be offered a number of problems and exercises, both carried out by the teacher during lectures. The second part of the course will explore aspects related to the systematic chemistry of the elements of the main group (p blocks), with reference to their physical properties and chemical reactivity, synthesis and their major compounds.
The course includes practical exercises in the laboratory and finally allow the student to acquire a good manual dexterity in the management of the basic instrumentation of a chemical laboratory, as well as with appropriate experiments to verify the knowledge learned during the course of General Chemistry (A and B).

GENERAL CHEMISTRY

MOD. A

Course program

1) The structure of the atom and the periodic table of the elements (12 hours)
Atomic number and mass number. isotopes
The quantization of energy. Bohr model. De Broglie equation. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.
The Schrödinger equation: quantum numbers. The Pauli exclusion principle and Hund's rule
The Periodic Table: blocks, periods, groups. Periodic properties.
2) The chemical bond (20 hours)
Ionic and covalent bonding. Dipole moments. Polarity of bonds and molecules..
The shape of the molecules: VSEPR theory.  and  bonds. The carbon-carbon multiple bonds
Molecular orbital theory. Intermolecular forces.
3) Chemical kinetics (4 hours)
Reaction rate and kinetic equation. Reaction order. Elementary reactions and reaction mechanisms. Outline of collision theory and transition state. Kinetic approach to equilibrium.
4) Thermochemistry (20 hours)
The energy and its forms. First Law of Thermodynamics. Internal energy. Enthalpy. Hess law
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The spontaneity of chemical reactions.
Free energy. Third Law of Thermodynamics.
Equilibrium constant and reaction quotient. Le Chatelier's principle.
5) Electrochemistry (16 hours)
Redox reactions.
Electrochemical potentials. Standard reduction potentials. Standard potentials..
The Nernst law. Lead accumulators and shelf batteries. Fuel Cells.
Electrolysis of molten salts and aqueous solutions containing salts.
Quantitative aspects of electrolysis: Faraday's Laws

Type of didactic activities: Lectures

MOD. B

Course program:
Part I (3 credits, 24 h)
(4 h) Physical and chemical properties of matter, intensive and extensive properties. Composition of matter: pure substances (elements, compounds) and mixtures. The mole concept, molar mass. Minimal formula and molecular level. Percentage composition. Weight relations in chemical reactions. Limiting reagent. Yield of the reaction.
The solutions (2 h) Expressions of concentration. Dilution of the solutions. The solutions in chemical reactions.
The ideal gas (4 h): Boyle, Charles and Gay-Lussac Laws. The principle of Avogadro. Equation of state of an ideal gas. Gaseous mixtures: law of Dalton and Amagat. Kinetic theory of gases.
Colligative properties of solutions (2 h): Vapor Pressure and Raoult's law. Osmotic pressure.
Ionic equilibria in aqueous solution (8 h): Ionic product of water. Acids and Bases: Arrhenius and Brønsted theories. Lewis theory. Dissociation constant for weak acids and bases. Calculation of pH for solutions of acids and bases. Buffer solutions. Acid-base titrations. Titration curves.
Solubility equilibria (4 h): Solubility and solubility product. Precipitation of slightly soluble salts. Solubility and pH. Selective precipitation. Formation of complex ions and solubility.
Second part (3 credits, 36 h)
1. Lectures (16 h):
Hydrogen (2 h): synthesis, properties and compounds
Group 1 (2 h): the chemistry of alkali metals
Group 2 (2 h): the chemistry of the alkaline earth metals
Group 13 (2 h): the chemistry of boron. Aluminium, Gallium, Indium and Thallium: synthesis, properties and compounds
Group 14 (2 h): synthesis, properties and compounds.
Group 15 (2 h): the chemistry of nitrogen. Phosphorus, Arsenic, Antimony and Bismuth: synthesis, properties and compounds
Group 16 (2 h): synthesis, properties and compounds
Group 17 (2 h): the chemistry of halogens
2. Practice in the laboratory (20 h).

Type of didactic activities:The first part of the course consists of lectures (24 h), with the addition of two tutorial lessons in the classroom (4 h) in preparation for the written tests. The second part consists of lectures in the classroom (16 h) and practical

GENERAL CHEMISTRY
:
MOD. A

Texts and teaching materials:

P. Atkins, L. Jones, Principles of Chemistry, Pearson Education, Inc.
M.S. Silberberg, "Chemistry", McGraw-Hill
The slides presented in class will be available to the student on the e-learning platform of the University in the days before the holding of the lesson

Verification of learning skills:

The examination consists in a written test on numerical applications related to the arguments in the course of General Chemistry A and B, followed in case of positive result of the written test, by an oral examination. Alternatively, the student can perform two written tests 'in progress' on topics covered in class (in the middle and at the end of the course). The overcoming of these two partial tests replaces the final written exam and thus allows access to the oral examination. The course of General Chemistry (A) and Chemistry (B) involves passing a single integrated examination, which includes a single vote and the accreditation of 15 credits in total. The rating is expressed out of thirty: the test is deemed passed with a vote of at least 18/30. The final grade will be a weighted average of the outcome of the written and oral exam.

MOD. B

Texts and teaching materials:

For the first part of the course will be used handouts provided by the teacher and available on the portal of e-learning. In addition, as further support in exercises and conduct problems you may want to make use of text: Clerici, S. Morrocchi, "Practical Chemistry", published by Spiegel. In the second part of the course will be used handouts provided by the teacher and available on the portal of education, integrated with the text: PW Atkins, T. Overtone, J. Rourke, M. Weller, F. Armstrong, "Inorganic Chemistry", 2nd Ed ., 2012, Ed Pearson Education, Inc.; W. Henderson, "Main Group Chemistry", RSC Wiley Interscience (2002).
Finally, in preparation for the practical exercises in the laboratory, we will refer to the handouts provided by the teacher in the classroom.

Verification of learning skills:

During the first part of the course there will be two written exams. The first, generally fixed in the month of December, will consist of exercises designed to assess the level of learning achieved by the student on the first topics covered in the modules A and B, namely: the size and weight ratios; solutions and colligative properties; the redox reactions; Lewis structures; perfect gases; homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibrium. The second test due at the end of the course (end of January - beginning of February), focuses on ionic equilibria in aqueous solution (acids and bases, solubility). The student who fails to pass a written test (or for that choice did not want to take part), will have to take a written test and final understanding of all the topics mentioned above. To pass the written exam, an oral exam is scheduled (together with the course of General Chemistry, Form A) in which they will be put to the test the knowledge acquired by the student on the theoretical aspects of the topics covered in the written test, as well as on all other subjects not treated in the latter: the structure of the atom; periodic properties; theories of the chemical bond; intermolecular forces; chemical kinetics; thermodynamic aspects of chemical reactions; electrochemistry.

Modules