ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY AND GEOMATERIALS
Basic knowledge on mathematic, chemistry, physics and geology.
Aims and learning outcomes
The purpose of the course is to enable students to acquire knowledge, skills and abilities in the identification and management of:
- The types of natural materials of geologic origin;
- The chemical laws at the base of the distribution and properties of chemical elements into geomaterials;
- The chemical and physical processes at the basis of genesis and evolution of geomaterials;
- The environmental impact of geomaterials.
RULES OF VERIFICATION
Assessment will be through a final oral examination.
The assessment of learning provides for the assignment of a final grade.
The student will be required a commitment to:
- Actively participating in the course, following topics on the handouts, on recommended texts and on the reference websites;
- Understanding terminology and scientific concepts, and their application in the discussions during the course, in writing assignments, and in oral examinations;
- Knowledge of the name, location, type of volcanism and geological problems of volcanoes covered in the course;
- Having the ability to redraw the charts and diagrams, and to appropriately comment on the images presented in the course.
The main topics are:
1 Introduction to study of geological materials;
2 Structure and composition of the Earth, geochemical classification of elements, geochemical behavior of geomaterials, methods of sampling and analysis of geomaterials;
3.Characteristics and composition of minerals and rocks, origin and types of soils.
4. The geochemical magmatic cycle, partial melting, fractional crystallization, isotope geochemistry, environmental impact.
Introduction to geomaterials
• Structure and composition of the Earth, core, mantle, crust, atmosphere, hydrosphere, meteorites
• Minerals, chemical and physical properties, geochemical composition, polymorphism, classes of silicates, rock forming minerals
• Crystal-chemistry, isomorphism and vicariance, methods of sampling and analysis of geomaterials.
Types of rocks
• Sedimentary rocks, environment, types, classification, texture, structure
• Igneous rocks, petrographical and geochemical classification, volcanic activity, texture and structure
• Metamorphic rocks, metamorphic processes an types
• soils, chemical and physical weathering of geomaterials, types of soil
Geochemical magmatic cycle
• Origin of magma and its transfer through the crust toward the surface
• Types of magma and relationship with tectonic settings, petrology of volcanic rocks
• Trace elements, magmatic series
• Physical properties of magmas, viscosity, volatile contain, temperature
• Stable isotopes, hydrosphere and lithosphere, geo-thermometers
• Radiogenic isotopes, dating, magmatic sources, Solar system evolution
• Hazard assessment (geological survey, scenario building, integrated hazard mapping)
• Communicating volcanic risk information to vulnerable populations and decision makers
• Risk mitigation
• Natural radioactivity, radon
• Impact of geomaterials on the environments and humans.
Materials and texts
The material used during the lectures and exercises will be made available to the student.
RECOMMENDED READING (available in the Library - Como)
MINERALOGY and PETROGRAphy
Klein C. – Mineralogia – Bologna, Zanichelli, 2004
Mottana A., Crespi R., Liborio G.- Minerali e Rocce – Milano, Mondadori, 2004
Bosellini A., Mutti E., Ricci Lucchi F. - Rocce e successioni sedimentarie – Torino, UTET, 1985
Deer W.A., Howie R.A., Zussmann J. - Introduzione ai minerali che costituiscono le rocce – Bologna, Zanichelli, 1994
Mackenzie W.S., Guilford C. - Atlante dei minerali costituenti le rocce in sezione sottile – Bologna, Zanichelli, 1985
Yardley B. W.D., Mackenzie W.S., Guilford C. - Atlante delle rocce metamorfiche e delle loro microstrutture – Bologna, Zanichelli
Mackenzie W.S., Donaldson C.H., Guilford C. - Atlante delle rocce magmatiche e delle loro tessiture. – Bologna, Zanichelli
Adams A.E., Mackenzie W.S., Guilford C. - Atlante delle rocce sedimentarie al microscopio – Bologna, Zanichelli
D’Argenio B., Innocenti F., Sassi F.P. - Introduzione allo studio delle rocce - Torino, UTET, 1995
Peccerillo A. - Elementi di petrologia ignea e metamorfica – Perugia, Morlacchi, 2002
Morbidelli L. - Le rocce e i loro costituenti - Roma, Bardi, 2003
Bosellini A. - Introduzione allo studio delle rocce carbonatiche - Ferrara, Bovolenta, 1991
Ottonello G. – Principi di geochimica – Bologna, Zanichelli, 1991
De Vivo B., Lima A., Siegel F.R. - Geochimica ambientale : metalli potenzialmente tossici - Napoli, Liguori ed., 2004
Dongarrà G., Varrica D. – Geochimica e ambiente – Napoli, Edises, 2004
Lollar B.S. - Environmental geochemistry – Amsterdam, Elsevier, 2004
Valley J.W., Cole D.R., editors - Stable isotope geochemistry – Washington, Mineralogical society of America, 2001
Prichard H.M. et al. - Magmatic processes and plate tectonics – London, Geological Society, 1997