Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Movement science
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (40 hours)

no prerequisites are requested.

The learning verification involves two written tests, one relating to the Chemistry module and the other relating to the Biochemistry module. The tests must be taken in the same exam session (the student will receive two separate tasks for chemistry and biochemistry); the time available to answer all the quizzes of the two exams is 60 minutes which is therefore the total time to deliver both tasks.
Separate marks are awarded for each of the two tests.
For the purposes of the final vote, the result of the test relating to the Chemistry module weighs for 33% (10/30) while the test for Biochemistry weighs for 67% of the overall vote (20/30).

More in detail:
- the exam for the Chemistry module consists of 10 multiple choice questions, with four possible answers, of which only one is correct. The test is considered passed if the student correctly answers at least 6 answers
- the exam for the Biochemistry module consists of 20 multiple choice questions, with five possible answers, of which only one is correct. To pass the test, the student must answer exactly at least 12 questions.
In both cases, points are not taken away for incorrect answers.
The questions of both tests are related to the topics covered during the course
If the student passes only one of the two tests, the exam is not considered sufficient. The student achieves sufficiency only if he passes both tests in the same exam session.

Voto Finale

Educational objectives
The aim of the integrated Chemistry and Biochemistry course is to provide the student with the knowledge necessary to understand the main biological phenomena at cellular and tissue level, in a chemical and biochemical point of view.
Since the teaching is part of the training course of the Course of Exercise in Motor Sciences, the focus will be on molecules and their metabolism mainly in muscle tissues and biochemical principles applied to motor activity. Furthermore, nutritional biochemical aspects will be treated with a view to demonstrating how energy metabolism can be influenced by diet and training.
The teaching consists of two distinct modules: a Chemistry module (which provides 24 hours of teaching in 12 frontal lessons) and a Biochemistry module (which provides 40 hours of teaching in 20 frontal lessons).

Expected learning outcomes

At the end of the entire integrated course, the student will be able to:
a) describe the fundamental role of biological molecules and their role;
b) analyze the main cellular structures in molecular terms;
c) describe the structures of skeletal muscle at the molecular level by describing their biomechanical functions;
d) comment on the specific metabolic pathways that determine energy production;
e) recognize and describe the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins;
f) describe the metabolism of mitochondria in relation to the types of training;
g) analyze the effects of different types of training and nutrition on muscle metabolic efficiency.

The biochemistry course module is divided into these fundamental points that will be addressed according to this scheme:
1- Introduction to carbohydrate deposition macromolecules and their metabolism;
2- notes on lipid storage and structure molecules and functions of biological membranes;
3- Amino acids and protein structures;
4- Molecular structure of muscle;
5- Oxygen transporters and their role in sports performance;
6- Enzymes and mechanism of action
7- Metabolic cycles of skeletal muscle (carbohydrates and lipids) and relationships with the liver and other organs;
8- Molecular mechanism of the onset of fatigue;
9- Athlete nutrition,
10- Mechanism of action and role of hormones;
11- Types of resistance and power training and their effects on muscle metabolism;
12- Doping.

Carbohydrates: nomenclature and classification of aldoses and ketoses, Open and cyclic forms. Complex sugars (exosamine, sialic acid). Disaccharides of biological interest (sucrose, maltose, lactose, cellobiose), Homopolysaccharides of structure: cellulose, Homopolysaccharides of reserve: starch and glycogen. Heteropolysaccharides: glycosaminoglycans.
Proteins: Chemical classification of amino acids, reactivity of the carboxylic and amino group, D-L series and their biological importance. Peptide bond and chemical-physical characteristics. Protein structure, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary.
Lipids: Simple lipids: fatty acids, nomenclature. Role of the double bond on chain stability and isomerism. Complex lipids: triglycerides, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Outline of the structure of biological membranes. Cholesterol and its derivatives. Glycoproteins. The structural organization of biological membranes.
Oxygen transporters: structural and functional properties of myoglobin and hemoglobin.
Enzymes: enzymatic properties and kinetics. Enzymatic inhibition. Regulatory enzymes: allosteric enzymes and covalently regulated enzymes.
The metabolism: general information, bioenergetics, the ATP-ADP system as an energy between catabolism and anabolism, molecular basis of the high energy content of ATP, phosphorylation at the substrate level. The "energy charge" and its regulatory role. The respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Glucose activation. Glycogen metabolism and control mechanisms.
Glycolysis, its energy balance and control mechanisms. The oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid. Gluconeogenesis and control mechanisms. Fatty acid oxidation. The Krebs cycle, its energy balance and control mechanisms. Anaplerotic reactions.
Amino acid metabolism: transamination, transdesamination. Defense mechanisms against ammonia toxicity: synthesis of glutamine and urea cycle. Ketone bodies. Metabolic adaptations in fasting.
Catabolism of heme and bilirubin
Hormones: general properties and mechanisms of action and role in doping

The course is based on lectures that use power-point presentations set with images, schemes and videos. The screening of films will make it easier to understand the development of some biochemical processes. During the lessons, the teacher cases and daily facts that can make us understand the application / importance of the subjects of the teachings. Material taken from recent international literature will be used to supplement specific topics.
To promote critical reflection and allow students the possibility of self-evaluation, at the end of each topic, questions with multiple choice questions are proposed with the help of the moodle platform. The tests are then analyzed and discussed with the students, they are not collected by the teacher and have no weight for the final evaluation, but reproduce typical questions that will be used during the written part

The teacher is available to arrange in-depth meetings or clarifications by requesting the email address