Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Nursing
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Basic compulsory subjects
Seat of the course: 
Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (30 hours)

There are no prerequisites for this integrated course.
The Chemistry and Biochemistry and General Biology modules, carried out in the first semester, do not require specific preliminary knowledge, but some basic notions of mathematics, including equivalences, proportions, powers and logarithms. The General Pharmacology module requires a basic knowledge of chemistry and biochemistry, learned in the previous module, and of anatomy and physiology carried out in the corresponding classes during the first year.

The Chemistry and Biochemistry part of the exam is in written form and consists of:
open-ended questions of progressive difficulty, aimed at ascertaining the general knowledge of the contents and basic information of the topics according to a criterion of essentiality and to the ability to critically discuss them. For this reason, students are allowed to consult during the test texts and didactic material used for the preparation. The answers are expected to be synthetic, straightforward and precise, and at the same time exhaustive. For this reason, the time available for the test is 45 minutes. The evaluation of the paper will only report errors, deficiencies and incompleteness. The correct formulation of the answers will be presented collectively, immediately after each student's vision of his/her already evaluated paper.
In exam sessions that include two appeals, it is advisable to plan to enroll in only one of them. In fact, in the case of serious insufficiency in the Chemistry and Biochemistry test sustained in a first appeal, the outcome in the subsequent appeal of the same session, especially if close to the date, is still very frequently negative.
For the general BIOLOGY module, the test consists of a quiz of 31 questions with 4 answers, one of which is correct.
If the teacher deems it necessary, an oral exam of 5-10 'can follow both partial tests,

The exam test relating to the PHARMACOLOGY module

The integrated course exam is unique, as for all integrated courses, and includes all the disciplines that are part of it. Note that:
- the final score is unique, and represents an average of the assessments obtained in each module;
- insufficiency in a module compromises the outcome of the entire exam which must be repeated with a new registration.

Voto Finale

The integrated course aims at providing students with the basic knowledge necessary to be able to understand:
the biological phenomena at the cellular and tissue levels;
the interaction between organism and drugs in normal and pathological conditions, and the possible therapeutic implications.

The course consists of the following modules:
- Chemistry and Biochemistry
- General biology
- General pharmacology

At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. know the chemical bases of the structure of living matter and understand its interactions in the physiological environment
2. discuss the energy and kinetic requirements of biological reactions
3. know the function of the main classes of biomolecules; in particular, their metabolism in physiological and pathological conditions and the structure/function relationship of nucleic acids
4. distinguish between mitotic and meiotic phases and apply the genetic basis of heredity to family trees.
5. Discuss the regulation of cellular and systemic energy metabolism and the nutritional properties of the main food classes.
6. know the general principles that underlie the interaction between the human body and drugs and their mechanism of action
7. set a correct dosage
8. assess the risk related to the use of drugs in relation to various factors (route of administration, adverse effects, intolerance to drugs, drug interactions
9. manage, store and use drugs in the hospital setting.
10. Illustrate the main legislative provisions regarding the production and use of drugs
11. Discuss the preclinical and clinical study phases for the discovery of new drugs.

Chemistry and Biochemistry:
Aqueous solutions
Acid base balance
Organic compounds
Amino acids and general structure of proteins.
Kinetics and enzymatic reactions.
Oxidative phosphorylation.
Carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and nitrogen compounds metabolism.
Nucleic acids.
Metabolic interactions.

General biology:
Structure and function of nucleic acids.
Transcription and Translation.
Bacterial recombination.
Cell duplication.
Molecular biology notions.

The PHARMACOLOGY course is structured in 8 lessons for a total of 15 hours concerning the following topics:

Chemistry and biochemistry:
1) Aqueous solutions: water, solvation and electrolytic dissociation, hydrogen bonding, concentration of solutions
2) Acid base balance: definitions (strength of acids and bases pH, pK), buffer solutions, Handerson-Hasselbalch equation, physiological buffers
3) Organic compounds, classification and functional groups: alcohol, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, amines. Nomenclature and main characteristics. Main types of isomerism. Aromatic compounds.
4) Amino acids and general structure of proteins. Collagen. Myoglobin and hemoglobin. Cooperativity and allosterism.
5) Kinetics of reactions: enzymes and kinetics of enzymatic reactions
6) Bioenergetics: principles of thermodynamics. Free energy and spontaneous reactions. High energy bonds, redox potentials, redox pairs of particular biological importance.
7) Oxidative phosphorylation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, aerobic and anaerobic metabolism
8) Carbohydrates. Monosaccharides and polysaccharides. Glycogen metabolism.
9) Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis and their regulation, pentose pathway.
10) Lipids. Fatty acids, triglycerides and phospholipids; beta oxidation.
11) Biosynthesis of fatty acids and triglycerides; Cholesterol and steroid hormones. Lipoprotein metabolism.
12) The general metabolism of amino acids and nitrogen compounds. Transamination, oxidative deamination, ammonium ion and urea cycle.
13) Nucleic acids. Nitrogen bases and nucleotides and their metabolism.
14) Metabolic interactions: blood glucose control, post-prandial phase and fasting, biochemical aspects of diabetes. Vitamins, iron metabolism, transfer of monocarbon units.

General biology:

DNA function
DNA structure
DNA duplication:
Duplication. semiconservative
Replicative gallows
Protein synthesis
Genetic code
Bacterial recombination
Examples of mutations
Notions of molecular biology.

Chemistry and Biochemistry:
the course takes place through lectures, usually of 2 hours each, which cover the entire exam program.
Exercises, handouts and on-line discussions of the course topics are also available through the e-learning platform.

General biology:
The teaching is organized in frontal lessons. The teacher uses the projection of slides, with charts, images, and diagrams to make the content of the lessons more comprehensible.


The teachers are available for appointments, insights and clarifications by writing to the respective email addresses:
Chemistry and Biochemistry,

General biology,