Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Nursing
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Basic compulsory subjects
Seat of the course: 
Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (45 hours)

To be admitted to the final exam of Human Physiology it is necessary to have followed the Course of Human Anatomy

Final Examination: 

The evaluation of the attainment of the objectives foreseen by the integrated Course is performed through a final exam on all issues presented in the detailed program of the Courses of Human Physiology. The exam consists of a multiple choices test of 40 questions delivered through a PC with a score of 0.825 for each correct answer and 0 for each wrong or missing answer. The exam aims at defining the knowledge and the degree of comprehensions of the human physiological mechanisms, the capacity to apply knowledge and comprehension and the learning capacity of the issues dealt with in the two aggregated Courses.
The exam is passed for scores higher than 18/30.

Voto Finale

The course aims to offer students a biophysical-quantitative view of the functioning mechanisms of cells, tissues and systems of the human body. In this way, the course intends to provide the skills necessary to understand in detail the complexity of vital functions in normal conditions and to make available to students the indispensable prerequisites for facing subsequent courses aimed at studying the pathological alterations of tissues and organs and their treatment. clinical and surgical. Therefore, teaching proves to be a fundamental pivot in building the professional profile of the student of Medicine and Surgery.

Expected Learning Outcomes
At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. describe the fundamental functional parameters that characterize the physiological conditions of cells, tissues and organs;
2. explain how cells and tissues work
3. use biophysical-quantitative tools (equations, graphs) to describe and analyze the physiological processes involved;
4. describe the correlations between structure, biophysical behavior and function of organs and systems.
5. describe the mechanisms underlying the coordinated and interactive functioning of several organs and systems
6. analyze the phenomena that lead to possible modifications of the quantitative and functional parameters as the organic conditions vary
7. discuss the topics dealt with clearly and using the appropriate technical language.
8. explain how the changes in functional balance found in physiological conditions lead to the onset of pathophysiological conditions of clinical interest for cells, tissues and organs.
The teaching is preparatory to that of General Pathology; therefore, the student is required to gain knowledge of the physiological mechanisms introduced in this course such as to enable him / her to easily and profitably attend the next course.

Resting membrane potential. Action potential and its propagation. Synapses and neuromuscular junction. Afferent sensory systems. Neuromuscular spindles and Golgi receptors. Thermal and pain sensitivity. Neuromotor units. Spinal reflexes. Motor control, function of cortical areas.
Skeletal muscle. Myogram. Force-length diagram. Force-velocity diagram. Dynamic force-velocity diagram.
Blood volume and its distribution. Velocity, cross section and pressure in the circulatory districts. Mechanical features of blood vessels. Bernoulli and Poiseuille laws. Cardiac excictability. Cardiac mechanics. Work and mechanical efficiency of the heart. Arterial and venous pulse pressure in systemic and pulmonary circulations. Fluid and solute exchanges between microvasculature and interstitial space. Lymph formation and propulsion. Oedema. Pulmonary circulation. Control of cardiovascular function
Air composition and respiratory gasses. Spirometry, static lung volumes. Pulmonary and alveolar volume and flow. Respiratory mechanics.. Respiratory ratio. Alveolar gas equation.. Respiratory gas exchange and their transport in blood. Nervous and chemical control of respiratory function.
Renal function. Glomerular filtration. Renal clearance. Absorption of water, Na+, Cl-, bicarbonates, aminoacids, urea. Secretion of H+ and organic substances. Henle loop and vasa recta. Distal convolute and collecting tubules. Aldosterone and vasopressin. Regulation of volume and osmoticity in extracellular body fluids. Urine volume, pH and composition.
Physiological buffer solutions. Respiratory and metabolic acidosis and alkalosis and their compensation.
Metabolism. Energetic fuel: anaerobic and aerobic pathways. Energy available in food. Oxygen debt. Basal, rest ad exercise metabolism. O2 consumption.
Peristaltic movements. Composition and functions of salivary, gastric, hepatic, pancreatic and intestinal secretion. Control of secretions. Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ions, vitamins, drugs and water.
Mechanisms of hormone release and action in the pituitary gland, adrenal glands, thyroid, paratyroids, pancreas

- extrinsic causes, examples and mechanisms of action of physical and chemical agents as well as poisons and nutritional factors
- Intrinsic causes, inheritance and examples of genetic diseases.
Pathogenesis, morphological changes and functional alterations cellular alteration concepts
- causes of cell damage
- cellular adaptation, growth and differentiation; atrophy hypotrophy/hypoplasia; hypertrophy; hyperplasia; metaplasia
- Cell death: necrosis and apoptosis
- Healing and repair of injuries
- Immunity and the immune system
- The inflammatory response: acute inflammation, chronic inflammation, inflammation associated pathologies, the innate immune response, cellular and chemical defense barriers
- Acquired immunity: lymphoid organs, cellular and chemical mediators, the humoral response and immunoglobulin classes, cell mediated responses, specificity, diversity and memory in the immune response, the major histocompatability complex, Vaccines, active and passive immunity, acquired and congenital immuno-deficiencies.
- Hypersensitivities, general concepts of organ specific and systemic autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection
- Cancer: Cell cycle control, nomenclature and classes of cancers, benign and malignant tumors, physical, chemical and viral carcinogenesis, genetics and cancer, oncogenes and oncosuppressors, definition and epidemiological evidence for multi-stage carcinogenesis, metastasis.
- General concepts of physiopathology of the cardiovascular system and the oral cavity
- General concepts of Clinical Pathology

Membrane potential
and action potential. Synapses. Neuromuscular junction. Neuronal coding. Synaptic integration. Sensory systems. Tactile and kinesthetic sensitivity. Tactile receptors. Proprioceptive, thermal and pain sensitivity. Vestibular system. Acoustic, visual, olfactory and gustatory sensitivity. The neuromotor unit. Spinal reflexes. Maintenance of posture. Motor coordination. Voluntary movement. Cortical areas.
Hemodynamics. Speed, section and average pressure in the various sections. Mechanical characteristics of the vessels. Laplace's law. Bernoulli's law. Laminar and turbulent motion. Sphygmic wave. Pressure in the districts of the large and small circle. Capillary exchange of liquid and solutes. Lymphatic system. Nervous and humoral regulation of blood pressure. Pulmonary circle. Coronary circle.
Rest and action potential of myocardial cells. ECG. Receptors, afferent pathways, cardio-regulating center, efferent pathways. Ventricular pressure and volume during the cardiac cycle. Cardiac throw. Cardiac work.
Atmospheric air composition and partial gas pressures. Static lung volumes. Pulmonary and alveolar ventilation. Pressure-volume diagram of the lung and chest wall. Intrapleural depression. Respiratory work. O2 consumption and CO2 production. Respiratory quotient. Alveolar air equation. Alveolus-capillary diffusion of respiratory gases. Transport of O2 and CO2 in the blood. Blood dissociation curves for O2 and CO2 Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Nervous regulation of ventilation.
Ionic volume and composition of the intracellular and extracellular compartments. Glomerular filtration. Renal clearance. Maximum tubular load. Absorption of water, Na +, Cl-, bicarbonates, amino acids, glucose, urea. Secretion of H + and organic substances. Henle loop. Osmoticity of the tubular and interstitial peritubular fluid in the various areas of the loop. Function of the vasa recta.
Buffer systems of the organism. Isoidic principle. Fixed and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis Respiratory and renal regulation of the pH of body fluids.
Energy sources: alactacid, glycolytic and aerobic lactacid mechanism. Caloric value of food and calorie equivalent of O2. Oxygen debt. Basal metabolism, rest and during exercise.
Skeletal muscle function. Isometric, isotonic and isovelocity contraction. Single shock, clone, tetanus. Force-length diagram. Force-speed contraction diagram
General characteristics of the digestive tract. Salivary, gastric, hepatic and pancreatic secretions. Peristaltic movements and their regulation. Gastrointestinal hormones. Digestion and absorption. Structure, mechanism of functioning and control of hormones.
Hormonal function of: anterior, posterior and intermediate pituitary; medullary and cortical of the adrenal glands; thyroid, parathyroid, endocrine pancreas, intestinal wall, gonads


Teaching will be given through frontal lessons. With the aid of images, schemas, graphs and biophysical analysis of the functioning mechanisms of cells, tissues and organs, the student will be driven to the comprehension of the different but integrated physiological processes

Prof. Negrini is available for the students through appointment set through the e-mail address :