Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Nursing
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
Seat of the course: 
Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (15 hours)

The integrated course has no prerequisites. However, it is important to have basic knowledge of cytology, histology and genetics.

The exam will be written and will consist of 3 multiple-choice quizzes. The General Pathology module will include 32 questions, to be solved in 45 minutes, in which the student will be required to demonstrate knowledge related to the program covered, while the two modules Microbiology and Clinical Pathology will each have 16 questions, to be solved in 20 minutes, in which the student will be required to demonstrate knowledge related to the program covered.
The objective of the examination is to test the level of achievement of the previously stated educational objectives.
The outcome of the examination will be in thirtieths, and to pass the examination, the student must achieve a mark of not less than 18 (eighteen) for each module, i.e. correctly answer at least 18 out of 32 questions, or 9 out of 16. The final grade is given by the arithmetic mean of the marks for the individual modules. The questions tend to define the degree of knowledge, the ability to apply knowledge and understanding, and the ability to learn in relation to the course syllabus. Each correct answer is graded 1 point and each incorrect or no answer 0 points.

Voto Finale

The aim of the integrated course is to provide the student with the knowledge necessary to understand the main biological phenomena of General Pathology, Immunology, Clinical Pathology and Microbiology, as well as the basic concepts in Diagnostic and Laboratory Medicine, which are included in the common training course for the different types of professional training in Nursing and Obstetrics, and with them the scientific terminology appropriate for the communication of these disciplines. The teaching consists of three separate modules:
a General Pathology and Immunology module (involving 30 hours of teaching in 15 face-to-face lectures), a Clinical Pathology module (involving 15 hours of teaching in 7 face-to-face lectures), and a Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology module (involving 15 hours of teaching in 7 face-to-face lectures).
Upon completion of the integrated course, the student must demonstrate the ability to:
1) explain the basic principles of innate and acquired immunity, and the functioning of the main molecules of the immune system;
2) learn about the mechanisms underlying the main hereditary diseases, diseases that reduce the efficiency of defense mechanisms, inflammation and hypersensitivities;
3) discuss critically and concisely the notions of cell pathology, alterations in cell growth and differentiation, and cell death;
4) explain the basic aspects of the etiology and pathogenesis of tumors;
5) explain the basic concepts of laboratory tests and argue about pre-analytical variability, analytical and post-analytical method of a diagnostic test;
6) describe the characteristics of the main circulating markers of neoplasia, classification and clinical use of tumor markers;
7) argue about the mechanisms of diagnostics in various fields such as: hematology; liver function; exocrine pancreas; cardiovascular pathology; diabetes, bone remodeling and renal function;
8) explain and describe the morphology, physiology, taxonomic and genetic position of bacteria and viruses, and the cellular and molecular basis in the interactions they establish with each other or with host cells;
9) know and describe the major diagnostic techniques in Clinical Microbiology for the identification of bacteria and viruses;
10) explain the mechanisms of action of antibiotics and the statistical models that are most frequently used in epidemiology as a tool for analysis in the prevention and spread of diseases;
11) explain and describe vaccines and their principle of action.

The front lessons will address the following topics:
Introduction to Laboratory Medicine. The collection and storage of biological samples: pre-analytical variability. Sensitivity and specificity.
Characteristics of the main circulating tumor markers, and the classification and clinical use of tumor markers.
Proteins in diagnostics and indicators of cardiovascular pathology.
Diagnostics in hematology: blood exam completed and anemias. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.
Liver function indices. Diagnostics of the exocrine pancreas.
Bone remodeling markers and kidney function diagnostics.

The Clinical Pathology course consists of 15 hours of lectures (1 CFU). The lessons are supported by the use of slide shows and students are invited to ask questions and are in turn solicited on specific cases and issues.

The lecturer of Clinical Pathology is available for further information or clarification on topics discussed for individual students or groups of students. He will receive students, after making an appointment by e-mail (, at the Immunology and General Pathology Laboratory (1st floor), Biomedical Pole, former Ex Colonia, via Monte Generoso 71 (int. 3), Varese.