Degree course: 
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Basic compulsory subjects
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (40 hours)
Voto Finale

Chemical bonds
Aqueous solutions
Acid base balance
Organic compounds
Amino acids and general structure of proteins.
Kinetics and enzymatic reactions.
Oxidative phosphorylation.
Carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and nitrogen compounds metabolism.
Nucleic acids.
Metabolic interactions.

Chemistry and biochemistry:
0) CHEMICAL BONDS. Atom model. Covalent and ionic bonding, molecules and crystals.
Aqueous solutions: water, solvation and electrolytic dissociation, hydrogen bonding, concentration of solutions
2) Acid base balance: definitions (strength of acids and bases pH, pK), buffer solutions, Handerson-Hasselbalch equation, physiological buffers
3) Organic compounds, classification and functional groups: alcohol, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, amines. Nomenclature and main characteristics. Main types of isomerism. Aromatic compounds.
4) Amino acids and general structure of proteins. Collagen. Myoglobin and hemoglobin. Cooperativity and allosterism.
5) Kinetics of reactions: enzymes and kinetics of enzymatic reactions
6) Bioenergetics: principles of thermodynamics. Free energy and spontaneous reactions. High energy bonds, redox potentials, redox pairs of particular biological importance.
7) Oxidative phosphorylation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, aerobic and anaerobic metabolism
8) Carbohydrates. Monosaccharides and polysaccharides. Glycogen metabolism.
9) Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis and their regulation, pentose pathway.
10) Lipids. Fatty acids, triglycerides and phospholipids; beta oxidation.
11) Biosynthesis of fatty acids and triglycerides; Cholesterol and steroid hormones. Lipoprotein metabolism.
12) The general metabolism of amino acids and nitrogen compounds. Transamination, oxidative deamination, ammonium ion and urea cycle.
13) Nucleic acids. Nitrogen bases and nucleotides and their metabolism.
14) Metabolic interactions: blood glucose control, post-prandial phase and fasting, biochemical aspects of diabetes. Vitamins, iron metabolism, transfer of monocarbon units.

General biology:

DNA function
DNA structure
DNA duplication:
Duplication. semiconservative
Replicative gallows
Protein synthesis
Genetic code
Bacterial recombination
Examples of mutations
Notions of molecular biology.

1. Microbiology: history and positive reflexes on human health
2.Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
3.Bacteria structure. Replication. Cultivation and growth of bacterial cultures. Bacterial spores. Biofilm.
4. Structure and reproduction of fungi. Classification of the main pathogenic fungi
5. Structure of viruses and classification. General characteristics, replication, pathogenesis.
6. Host-parasite interactions (infection, differences between infection and disease, immune response against infectious agents)
7. Anti-infective drugs (antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral). Vaccines.
8. Diagnosis of microbial infections
9. Microbial infections and immune system
10. Signs of principal microbial infections

the course takes place through lectures, usually of 2 hours each, which cover the entire exam program.
Exercises, handouts and on-line discussions of the course topics are also available through the e-learning platform.

The teacher is available for appointments, insights and clarifications by writing to