Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Supplementary compulsory subjects
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (48 hours)

The course requires partial proficiency in main subjects of a biology course: english reading skills, mathematics, chemistry, physics, cytology and histology, comparative anatomy, genetics, biochemistry, microbiology, general physiology. Mandatory exams are not present in this degree course.

Final Examination: 

The final oral examination will assess the achievement of the learning objectives and the ability to present the topics covered in the course of the course.
The final assessment will take into account the ability to use deductive reasoning and the ability to communicate what has been learned in appropriate language.
Estimated time 40 minutes.
The final mark is expressed in thirtieths on the basis of the examination committee's assessment of the above aspects.

Voto Finale

A comparative physiology course intended for BSc students. The course is meant as follow up of the general physiology course and proposes up to date knowledge about comparative physiology. The structure function relationships of different organs will be approached considering also evolutionary aspects. Some examples in the animal kingdom will be exploited.
The aim of the course is to promote a study across the borders based on the various preparatory “biological” disciplines, a prerequisite to understand comparative physiology. The course intention is to stimulate the student in the use of a logical approach and deductive reasoning instead of the pure mnemonic way, essential requirements in order to facilitate the comprehension of the topics.

Fundamentals of physiology (2CFU):
Animals and environments: function on the ecological stage
Molecules and cells in animal physiology
Genomics, proteomics, and related approaches to physiology
Physiological development and epigenetics
Transport of solutes and water
Food energy and temperature (2CFU):
Nutrition, feeding, and digestion
Energy metabolism
Aerobic and anaerobic forms of metabolism
The energetics of aerobic activity
Thermal relations
Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport (1CFU):
Introduction to oxygen and carbon dioxide physiology
External respiration: the physiology of breathing
Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in body fluids (with an introduction to acid-base physiology)
Water salts and excretion (1CFU):
Water and salt physiology: introduction and mechanisms
Water and salt physiology of animals in their environment
Kidneys and excretion (with notes on nitrogen excretion)


The teaching activity includes lectures (48 hours). Lectures in the classroom or remotely will be conducted with the aid of multimedia presentations.

The course will be taught by a single lecturer. Office hours are by appointment with the teacher: