Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Supplementary compulsory subjects
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (48 hours)

Although not mandatory, notions of general, inorganic and organic chemistry, biochemistry, human anatomy, physiology, general and molecular pharmacology are preferred.

Final Examination: 

Exams are scheduled in the number planned by the Degree Course. The exam will consist of a written test, three free-response questions with the aim of verifying the student's ability to:
- describe the general principles that regulate the toxicity related to the exposure to xenobiotics
- understand the mechanisms underlying adverse drug responses;
- discuss the risk / benefit issues related to the use of drugs
- describe the toxic effects and health risk from xenobiotics
To pass the exam, the students must adequately answer at least two of the assigned questions. A 0–30 scale will be used where the passing grade is 18 out of 30.
The examination modality may be modified based on any restrictions that may be indicated by the University.

Voto Finale

The course will provide the students with knowledge regarding the manifestation of toxic effects in humans and animals, caused by drugs or xenobiotics. The principles of general toxicology will be addressed, with particular regard to the similarities and differences between general toxicology and general pharmacology. The path of xenobiotics in the body will be described, including the different phases of toxico-kinetics, from absorption to distribution, accumulation, metabolism and elimination, and the factors that facilitate or hinder the different processes will be examined, even as a result of xenobiotic interference. In addition to these concepts of general toxicology, the course will examine the toxic effects caused by drugs or other substances and their mechanisms of action at the molecular, cellular and organ level.
At the end of the course the student will be able to:
- understand and discuss the mechanisms underlying toxicity at the cellular, molecular, pathophysiological levels
- describe the ways in which a toxic substance can enter the body, the effects on specific organs and systems following exposure, as a cause of both acute and chronic exposures
- address the issues related to the request for preclinical and clinical evaluation and to the risk assessment related to drugs and health products

Frontal lessons (6 CFU, 48 hours)
- elements of general toxicology
- Different types of toxic effects
- factors affecting toxicity
- mechanisms of toxicity: cell damage, genotoxicity, chemical carcinogenesis, allergic reactions and idiosyncrasy
- toxicological evaluation
- dose-response relationship
- pharmacovigilance
- developmental toxicity
- toxicity to organs and systems (toxic responses of the nervous system, liver, respiratory system)
- elements of environmental toxicology
- elements of forensic toxicology


The course will consist of frontal lectures: the discussion of the various topics will be carried out through PowerPoint presentations. All the material will be made available to students through the E-learning platform at the end of each lesson

The teacher is available for meetings with students for further information or clarification of the topics covered, by appointment (