Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Supplementary compulsory subjects
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (48 hours)


Final Examination: 

The exam will take place in written form.
Students will have to choose an in-depth topic related to the contents of the course. The topics may concern insights into the issues developed during the lessons, analysis of companies and/or sectors particularly committed from the point of view of sustainability, critical analysis of in-depth articles present in the literature on the topics covered in the course or the history and related economic aspects to the marketing of products, substances and raw materials.
Students will have to share the choice of the topic with the professor and wait for approval. Once approval has been received, an independent work of collecting information and data on the chosen topic can begin. During the period of collection and analysis of data and information, students will be able to discuss with the professor at any time.
One week before the exam, students will receive a form to fill in based on the type of work carried out and the knowledge obtained through the analysis of data and information on their topic.
Further explanations on how the exam works will be provided during the course.

Voto Finale

The course is an introduction to the study of the basics of economics, with particular attention to elements of interest for graduates in biological disciplines. The course provides tools for a better understanding of the functioning and the dynamics which characterize, in general terms, the elements of an economic system and the behaviors of the subjects who are part of it and make decisions. Mainly microeconomic themes will be introduced, with special reference to those related to the formation and functioning of the demand and supply of goods and services in the context of different market forms. Moreover, themes related to green economy, circular economy and bioeconomy will be introduced. Finally, elements related to the links, interdependencies and mutual impacts between economics and the environment will be introduced, mainly looking at the contribution of economic disciplines to sustainable development

The lessons will focus on the following topics:
** Economics: what it studies, with what methods and how it has evolved over time.
** The main economic variables and their dynamics: introduction to the concepts of micro and macro economics
** Economic subjects: consumers and firms/demand and supply, organizations and state, behaviors, objectives and responsibilities
** Introduction to the dynamics of consumers and firms decision making processes
** The concept of the market and its dynamics: supply and demand, production and consumption decisions, formation of markets and their functioning and the main 4 market shapes
** Economics and sustainability: public goods, market failures and externalities, solutions to market failures
** Environmental economics, new economies and new economic objectives: how the economy is integrating the attention to the environment, sustainable development and climate change. Introduction to the circular economy and the bioeconomy: new concepts for resources, value chains, market sectors
** From the determinants to the limits of growth: the role of innovation and technological progress, the limits of uncontrolled growth in a world where resources are limited.
** Intervening in the dynamics of the economic systems in the light of new sustainability objectives: behaviors and objectives of economic subjects, decisions of the state and of / in the market


The course is structured in frontal lessons with the aid of slides and other teaching materials. Students are encouraged to intervene for clarification or interactive discussion with the professor. Furthermore, as part of the course, examples and empirical case studies will be provided and ongoing debates involving economic issues useful for the course will be analyzed and discussed, with particular reference to environmental sustainability, sustainable development, climate change and the circular bioeconomy