Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (40 hours), Laboratory (12 hours)

Good knowledge of Physiology

Final Examination: 

The final exam will take place through an oral interview of about 30-40 minutes aimed at verifying the understanding of the topics covered and the acquisition of correct scientific language. The criteria that will guide the evaluation of the test will take into account the student's ability to consider the genetic, molecular, physiological, and pathological aspects of the pathology requested during the interview. Upon completion of the test, 1-2 questions will be asked on general themes of physiopathology. Based on the evaluation of the Examination Committee, the final grade will be expressed out of thirty.

Voto Finale

The course aims to provide the basis for knowledge and understanding of the relationships among physiology, adaptation mechanisms, pathological, and reparative processes. In particular, the course has the following objectives:

-Understanding of the molecular, cellular, and systemic mechanisms that allow the maintenance of the homeostasis of the organism and its recovery or degradation as a result of disturbances.

- Understanding of the physiological mechanisms and possible pathological compromises of the nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine, and renal systems.

-Understanding of the functioning of non-invasive electrophysiological investigation methodologies (ECG, Electromyogram).

Risultati di apprendimento
Specifically, at the end of the course, the student will be able to:

-identify how an altered genetic mechanism, an environmental factor or the impairment of a cellular function can interact with normal cellular and systemic functioning, giving rise to a pathology.

- perform non-invasive electrophysiological recordings and evaluate and interpret the most relevant aspects of the traces.

-acquire the scientific language that allows a correct dissemination on physiopathological issues in the medical / scientific field.

Introduction to pathophysiology (6 hours):
Mechanisms and processes of cellular distress and recovery, necrosis, apoptosis, UPR (unfolded protein response), proteasome, autophagocytosis;
Pathophysiology of inflammatory processes: humoral and cellular aspects.

Nervous system (12 hours):
Nerve Cells and Neuroinflammation;
Neuronal pathophysiology: the neuroprotective and neurotoxic role of the glia.
Pathophysiology of excitability (ion channels, synaptic function, myelin);
Pathophysiology of the peripheral nervous system;
Pathophysiology of motor control;

Cardio-circulatory system (10 hours):
Mechanical activity of the heart and its regulation;
Congestive heart failure, compensatory mechanisms, heart failure;
Peripheral circulation: oxygenation and exchanges, ischemia;
Coronary circulation, cardiac perfusion, angina, and heart attack;
Range, pressure, cardiac work, hypertension, and atherosclerosis;
Electrical activity of the heart and its regulation; Alterations of electrical activity, pathogenesis of arrhythmias;
Physiological aspects and diagnostic indications of the electrocardiogram.

Control of liquids and solutes (4 hours)
The kidney as an elimination system;
The kidney as a homeostatic control system of the composition of body fluids, the control of the volume of body fluids;
Acute and chronic renal failure;
Control of the pH of body fluids.

Endocrinology, hormonal pathophysiology (8 hours)
Developmental endocrinology;
Stress endocrinology;
Pathophysiology of the thyroid gland;
Homeostasis of glucose and regulation of blood sugar.

Exercises (Classroom and times to be defined) - recording and analysis of: (12 hours)
ECG: electrocardiogram;
EMG: electromyogram.


The teaching activity includes lectures (40 hours) carried out with the help of power point presentations, supplemented by video, in many cases in English. Support activities are offered for exam preparation that involve the active participation of students, and aimed at understanding the topics covered.
Practical exercises (12 hours) will be carried out with a non-invasive electrophysiological recording system. Students will be divided into small groups and, in turn, will make recordings of their cardiac and muscular electrical activity and subsequently analyse the data obtained.

The teacher is available for meetings with students, for clarification on the topics covered during class hours by appointment via e-mail: