Degree course: 
Corso di Second cycle degree in BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (48 hours)

In order to attend fruitfully the class, the student should possess the basic notions in Immunology. To this end, the lecturer will hold a three-lecture refresh in basic immunology in September, before the beginning of the course

Final Examination: 

The final exam consists of a written test characterized by four multiple choice questions plus two open-ended questions chosen by the student from a list of three, thereafter the written test will be discussed in an oral exam. In this way the teacher will verify the preparation and presentation skills of students. Students are expected to have a comprehensive knowledge of current immunology and a basic understanding of some experimental methods. The final grade is evaluated as follow: 4 points for the four multiple choice questions, 10 points for the first open-ended questions, 10 points for the second open-ended questions, 7 points for the oral discussion (the sum of these marks is 30+1, 30 cum laude).

Voto Finale

The goals of the course of immunopathology are to provide a) a comprehensive knowledge of immunopathology and the underlying T cell biology b) a basic knowledge of immunological techniques c) some notions about selected areas of current immune research c1) microbiota and mucosal immunity c2)immunology of cancer c3)neuroimmunology c) immunity to viruses, in particular covid-SARS2. Currently a knowledge of Immunopathology is mandatory for the training of the biologist aiming at studying Biomedicine, the aim is to furnish a useful complement to other classes of BMS dealing with Microbiology, Oncology and Neurobiology.
After the Course the student will be able to explain the concepts underlying current immunology in health and disease and to describe some basic experimental strategies.

Section A
Immune regulatory circuits
Immunological techniques
Atopic diseases

Section B
Microbiota and mucosal immunity
Cancer Immunology and the new field of cancer immunotherapy
Selected topics in Neuroimmunology
Immune response to viruses

Section A
Immune regulatory circuits
-conventional T helper cells, Th1, Th2 and Th17
-the thymus and central tolerance
-peripheral tolerance: first, second and third signal and regulatory T cells

Immunological techniques
-how to study cytokines: ELISA, intracellular fluorescence, ELISPOT and Th polarization
-inbred mice strains, use in biomedicine
-some technical tools used to analyze T cells

Atopic diseases
type I, II, III and IV Hypersensitivity

-epidemiology and classification of autoimmune disorders
-pathogenic mechanisms of autoimmune disorders
-selected example of autoimmune diseases
-therapy of autoimmune diseases, classical and novel approaches

Section B

Microbiota and mucosal immunity
-how to study microbiota
-microbiota, metabolism and immune development
-gut microbiota
Cancer Immunology and the new field of cancer immunotherapy
-cancer immune surveillance theory
-tumor antigens
-immunotherapy of cancer, adoptive cell transfer and chimeric antigen receptors (CAR)
-immunotherapy of cancer, immune checkpoints inhibitors
-cancer cachexia
-microbiota and cancer

Selected topics in Neuroimmunology
-brain immune privilege, classical and current view. Recent discoveries about meningeal lymphatic system and glymphatic system
-inflammatory reflex in health and disease, bioelectronic medicine
-the complex bidirectional interaction between microbiota and nervous system, microbiota and autism

Immune response to viruses
-innate and acquired responses to viruses
-arms race between viruses and their hosts, escape strategies from immune response
-SARS-CoV2 vaccine
-pathogenesis of covid-19


The course consists of lectures supported by Power Point presentations (48 hours, 6 CFU). As a complement to the section B, the lecturer will discuss briefly some seminal papers (journal club)

The lecturer is available on appointment ( for meeting students to explain or further discuss the issues treated in the class.