GENERAL HYGIENE AND COMMUNITY PREVENTIVE MEDICINE

Degree course: 
Corso di Long single cycle degree (6 years) in School of Dentistry
Academic year when starting the degree: 
2021/2022
Year: 
2
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
2022/2023
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
Seat of the course: 
Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
Credits: 
3
Period: 
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
36
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (36 hours)
Requirements: 

The scientific knowledge provided by the teachings of previous years is considered useful, in particular the knowledge of general concepts of statistics

The exam consists of an oral test. The objective of the exam is to verify the level of achievement of the previously indicated training objectives, evaluating the level of knowledge and deepening of the topics addressed. In particular, the knowledge of the topics, the understanding / ability to discuss the topics connected to it and the mastery of the scientific language of the reference field and the clarity of expression will be evaluated.

Assessment: 
Voto Finale

The course aims to provide the student with:
The main knowledge on the determinants and the main risk factors
which affect health, disease and the interaction between the human being and
its physical and social environment, with particular attention to the woman in
pregnancy.
The essential notions of epidemiology for public health, the
determinants of health, the prevention of infectious and chronic degenerative diseases,
hospital hygiene in an odontoiatric environment. The criteria of cause and effect in medicine, the main types of epidemiological studies, their validity, measures and principles of statistical analysis
relevant to the measures.

INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC HEALTH:
The concept of health; evolution of public health and current epidemiological scenario; public health instruments; prevention; fields of application

PART I - EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PREVENTION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
1. Risk factors, sources and reservoirs of infection, mode of transmission;
2. Population Interventions: Vaccinations (programming, vaccination coverage, the problem of real and perceived effectiveness, misinformation and infoedemia), passive immunoprophylaxis, chemoprophylaxis, disinfection and sterilization, health surveillance and notification
3. Public health management of SarCOV2 infection: Epidemiology, risk scenarios and specific prevention with particular reference to the dental care environment
4. Interventions in care facilities (Hospital hygiene): Infections related to dental and hospital care, procedures for the prevention of infections related to health care (hand washing, use of PPE, instrumentation management, environment), management of medical waste
5. Environmental hygiene and food hygiene

PART II - EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PREVENTION OF NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
1. Risk factors, assessment of intervention priorities (effect, impact, modifyability);
2. Primary prevention interventions (health promotion, health education) and tertiary (health education. and therapeutic education.): risk factors and specific interventions (smoking, alcohol, Mediterranean diet, physical activity), oral hygiene and nutrition.
3. Epidemiology and prevention of caries and parodontal diseases
4. Secondary prevention interventions - screenings: criteria, methodology, specific examples, current and new fields of application
5. Risk assessment: applications of risk scores in public health, new biomarkers – OMICS
6. Personalized Prevention (4S)

PART III - EPIDEMIOLOGICAL METHODOLOGY
1. The main epidemiological studies: descriptive, cross-sectional, case-control, cohort, ecological, clinical trials, secondary studies (systematic review and metanalysis)
2. Frequency measures: prevalence, incidence, incidence rates
3. Association measures: relative risk, odds ratio, absolute risk and attributable risk

PART IV - VALIDITY OF STUDIES
1. Bias and confounding: selection, information and confounding bias
2.Interaction and mediation
3.Confounding control methods: sample selection, data collection, randomization, restriction, pairing, stratified and multivariate analyses

PART V - THE MAIN SOURCES OF INFORMATION OF HEALTH DATA
1. Death registry and hospital discharge registry
2. Pathology registers: cancer registry, rare disease registry

PART VI - THE HEALTH SYSTEM
1. Italian national and regional health organization
2. Hospital and territorial organization of the NHS (Companies, prevention departments, districts)
2. Elements of health planning and organization: national and regional health plans
2. Elements of health planning and organization: national and regional health plans
3. Definitions of health economics and management (evidence based practice, risk management, case management, quality of care, HTA
3. Practical session of evidence based practice: use of bibliographic databases

INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC HEALTH:
The concept of health; evolution of public health and current epidemiological scenario; public health instruments; prevention; fields of application

PART I - EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PREVENTION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
1. Risk factors, sources and reservoirs of infection, mode of transmission;
2. Population Interventions: Vaccinations (programming, vaccination coverage, the problem of real and perceived effectiveness, misinformation and infoedemia), passive immunoprophylaxis, chemoprophylaxis, disinfection and sterilization, health surveillance and notification
3. Public health management of SarCOV2 infection: Epidemiology, risk scenarios and specific prevention with particular reference to the dental care environment
4. Interventions in care facilities (Hospital hygiene): Infections related to dental and hospital care, procedures for the prevention of infections related to health care (hand washing, use of PPE, instrumentation management, environment), management of medical waste
5. Environmental hygiene and food hygiene

PART II - EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PREVENTION OF NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
1. Risk factors, assessment of intervention priorities (effect, impact, modifyability);
2. Primary prevention interventions (health promotion, health education) and tertiary (health education. and therapeutic education.): risk factors and specific interventions (smoking, alcohol, Mediterranean diet, physical activity), oral hygiene and nutrition.
3. Epidemiology and prevention of caries and parodontal diseases
4. Secondary prevention interventions - screenings: criteria, methodology, specific examples, current and new fields of application
5. Risk assessment: applications of risk scores in public health, new biomarkers – OMICS
6. Personalized Prevention (4S)

PART III - EPIDEMIOLOGICAL METHODOLOGY
1. The main epidemiological studies: descriptive, cross-sectional, case-control, cohort, ecological, clinical trials, secondary studies (systematic review and metanalysis)
2. Frequency measures: prevalence, incidence, incidence rates
3. Association measures: relative risk, odds ratio, absolute risk and attributable risk

PART IV - VALIDITY OF STUDIES
1. Bias and confounding: selection, information and confounding bias
2.Interaction and mediation
3.Confounding control methods: sample selection, data collection, randomization, restriction, pairing, stratified and multivariate analyses

PART V - THE MAIN SOURCES OF INFORMATION OF HEALTH DATA
1. Death registry and hospital discharge registry
2. Pathology registers: cancer registry, rare disease registry

PART VI - THE HEALTH SYSTEM
1. Italian national and regional health organization
2. Hospital and territorial organization of the NHS (Companies, prevention departments, districts)
2. Elements of health planning and organization: national and regional health plans
2. Elements of health planning and organization: national and regional health plans
3. Definitions of health economics and management (evidence based practice, risk management, case management, quality of care, HTA
3. Practical session of evidence based practice: use of bibliographic databases

The course is based on lectures with slide presentation, examples, exercises and practical sections on the use of bibliographic databases on the web (PubMed), drawing of epidemiological studies, population surveys, meta-analysis.
There will be thematic lessons with experts in the field.
Examples from recent international literature will be used to supplement specific topics. To allow students the possibility of self-assessment, at the end of the course questionnaires with multiple choice questions are proposed in the classroom. The tests are then analyzed and discussed in the classroom; They are not withdrawn by the teacher and have no weight for the final evaluation.

Available on request: licia.iacoviello@uninsubria.it Phone: 0331 217223 EPIMED via Monte Generoso – Ex Colonia Agricola - 21100 Varese.
Email: licia.iacoviello@uninsubria.it
Skype contact: licia.iacoviello