Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Biomedical Laboratory techniques
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Basic compulsory subjects
Seat of the course: 
Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (12 hours)

nowledge of biology, physiology and biochemistry.

Learning Verification takes place only through a final exam in oral form. The exam aims to assess the evaluation of student knowledge of the theoretical and practical aspects concerning the pharmacological studies, as well as the active ability of the student to use the knowledge learned for the evaluation of the technical aspects essential for the preparation of in vitro and in vivo models for the evaluation of drugs effect. The achievement by the student of an organic vision of the topics addressed, and in particular the ability to use this knowledge for a correct assessment of the technical aspects in preparation of preclinical and clinical studies, will be evaluated with marks of excellence. The mnemonic and notional knowledge of the topics dealt with, which translates into an exposition not supported by a capacity for synthesis and analysis of the topics dealt with in an organic perspective and a correct but not always appropriate language will lead to discrete evaluations; training gaps and / or inappropriate language, albeit in a context of minimal knowledge of the exam material, will lead to just sufficient grades. Training gaps, inappropriate language, lack of orientation within the texts, will be negatively evaluated.

Voto Finale

The main objective of the teaching of Pharmacology (MED0502-3) is to provide a solid preparation for the understanding of the principles and techniques concerning the preclinical and clinical drugs experimentation, as well as the main aspects concerning toxicology. Moreover the most relevant applications that a laboratory technician will be able to deal with during the professional activity will be treated.
At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. know and understand the processes associated with drug trials (pre-clinical and clinical) and the processes concerning the toxicological aspects related to the use of substances (both drugs and substances of abuse).
2. apply the acquired knowledge for the preparation of preclinical and clinical models for the study of drug processes with particular regard to the technical aspects.

Preclinical and clinical experimentations. In particular pre-clinical trials (objectives, used techniques with examples and results evaluations). Principles and phases of clinical trials. Setting up of clinical trials. Definitions and role of ethics committees. Examples of clinical trials. Drug bioequivalence. Adverse drug Reaction. Toxicology studies. Classification of the toxic substances. Mechanism of action of toxic substances. Antidotes.

Principles and stages of preclinical drugs trials.
Definition of preclinical study, Phase I and Phase II
- EC50 Definition
- Subacute and chronic toxicity studies
- Techniques for the study of receptors
- Examples of pre-clinical experimental protocols
Principles and phases of clinical trials
- Preparation of clinical studies
- The role of ethics committee in clinical trials
- Phases of clinical trial
- Clinical trial: experimental determination of drugs bioequivalence
- Clinical trials: concept of adverse drug reaction (ADR), examples of side effects drug induced.
Methodologies to search for publications of scientific interest (How to use and on-line databases; - How to read a scientific article)

The course is based on lectures using ppt set with images, diagrams and videos. To promote students critical reflection and allow possibility of self-assessment, during the lesson, questions with questions regarding the topics of the course are proposed to the students.

Teacher material provided (slides, photocopies of articles)

Furlanut M. Farmacologia generale e clinica per le lauree triennali. Piccin, Padova
Neal MJ Medical Pharmacology at a Glance Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (trad. italiana a cura di Richelmi P, Berté F La Farmacologia in uno Sguardo La Goliardica Pavese, Pavia)
Clementi F, Fumagalli G. Farmacologia generale e molecolare UTET, Torino, 2000
Craig CR, Stitzel RE. Farmacologia moderna con applicazioni cliniche, Antonio Delfino Editore, Roma

The teacher receives the students every day after personal contact by e-mail (


Parent course