Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Biomedical Laboratory techniques
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Seat of the course: 
Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 

To take the final exam of Human Physiopathology it is necessary, on the basis of the prerequisites provided for by the didactic regulations, to have previously passed the Human Anatomy exam.

Final Examination: 

The assessment of the achievement of the objectives set by the Course requires a final exam on all the topics included in the program.
The Physiology exam consists of a test performed by computer support (PC) including 40 multiple choice questions to be completed in 45 minutes, with a score of 0.825 points for each correct answer and 0 points for each wrong or missing answer.
The General Pathology exam consists of a written test with 33 multiple choice questions to be completed in 30 minutes. 1 point will be awarded if all the answers to the question are correct, and zero points if even one answer to the question is wrong.
The exam questions are aimed at defining:
- knowledge and understanding of physiological and pathological mechanisms,
- the ability to apply knowledge and understanding,
- the ability to learn the topics covered in the two aggregate courses.
For Pharmacology, the achievement of the objectives of the course will be assessed by an oral exam of about 15 minutes concerning the contents of the module. In formulating the judgment, the teacher takes into account, in addition to the accuracy and completeness of the answer, also of:
- clarity of presentation,
- ownership of the terminology used,
- ability to link and elaborate the acquired knowledge.
The overall score of the Physiopathology exam will be obtained as the average of the evaluations obtained in the three individual exams of Human Physiology, General Pathology and Pharmacology

Voto Finale

Human Pathophysiology studies the vital functions of man under normal conditions and in the course of alteration and analyzes how the living organism obtains and maintains the homeostasis of its internal medium at the molecular, cellular and tissue level, in the context of changes in the environment. surrounding. It also deals with the mechanisms by which drugs intervene in cellular and tissue functioning.
The objective of the Pathophysiology Course will therefore be to provide students with all the information necessary to understand, from a biophysical-quantitative point of view, the operating modes of the various organs and systems of the organism in normal conditions as well as their control by of the central and autonomic nervous system and of the endocrine system
The course is divided into three modules:
1. Physiology
2. General Pathology
3. Pharmacology

The integrated course proposes to examine different aspects of the functioning of organs and systems, of their pathological alterations and of the bases of pharmacological intervention for the restoration of functions.

The fundamental topics that the future graduate must necessarily know in relation to:
1) PHYSIOLOGY of the following systems and apparatuses:
Central and autonomic nervous system.
Skeletal muscle and locomotion.
Cardiac muscle
Vascular and lymphatic system
Pulmonary and coronary circulation.
Control of the cardiovascular system.
Respiratory system, exchanges and transport of respiratory gases.
Nervous and chemical control of ventilation.
Excretory system and regulation of the volume and osmoticity of body fluids
Acid-base balance.
Energy metabolism.
Digestive system.
Endocrine system.

Through the General Pathology course, students learn the basic knowledge of modern cellular and molecular pathology, as well as of degenerative, inflammatory and neoplastic multicellular pathological processes. Part of the course is dedicated to the study of the natural and acquired mechanisms of immunity. Particular attention is given to the study of acute and chronic inflammation with specific related diseases, to the pathogenesis of retrovirus-mediated acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and to the study of the onset, maintenance and spread of the neoplastic process.

Principles and phases of preclinical and clinical drug testing. in particular, topics related to the preparation of preclinical (technical objectives of experimentation models) and clinical (principles and phases of clinical experimentation, objectives of clinical experimentation, phases of clinical experimentation, examples of clinical experimentation) will be dealt with.
Notes on the role of ethics committees in clinical trials. Experimental determination of the bioequivalence of drugs. Adverse reaction concept.
Hints of toxicology: classification of toxic substances, mechanism of action of the main classes of toxic substances, antidotes.

In all three modules of the Integrated Course, teaching will be delivered through lectures. With the help of images, diagrams, graphs and analytical treatments underlying the behavior of cells, tissues and organs, the student will be guided to understand the different, but integrated, physiological, pathological and pharmacological processes.

The teachers of the integrated course can be contacted via their institutional emails:
Prof. Daniela Negrini -
Prof. Greta Forlani -
Dr. Marco Ferrari -


  • Credits: 3
    Place of teaching: Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
  • Credits: 2
    Place of teaching: Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
  • Credits: 1
    Place of teaching: Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria