Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Imaging and Radiotherapy techniques
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Basic compulsory subjects
Seat of the course: 
Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (12 hours)

Knowledge of biology, physiology and biochemistry

Learning Verification takes place only through a final exam in oral form. The exam aims to assess the level of understanding of general pharmacology, as well as the students capacity to use the knowledge learned for evaluation of the essential technical aspects in preparation of preclinical and clinical studies. The achievement by the student of an organic vision of the topics addressed, and in particular the ability to use this knowledge for a correct assessment of the technical aspects in preparation of preclinical and clinical studies, will be evaluated with marks of excellence. The mnemonic and notional knowledge of the topics dealt with, which translates into an exposition not supported by a capacity for synthesis and analysis of the topics dealt with in an organic perspective and a correct but not always appropriate language will lead to discrete evaluations; training gaps and / or inappropriate language, albeit in a context of minimal knowledge of the exam material, will lead to just sufficient grades. Training gaps, inappropriate language, lack of orientation within the texts, will be negatively evaluated

Voto Finale

The Course of Medical Radiology Techniques, Imaging and Radiotherapy is aimed to provide a solid preparation in general pharmacology and, with particular regard to radiopharmaceuticals and contrast media used in radiology.
At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. Know and understand the processes associated with pharmacology. As regard pharmacokinetics, the conditions that require drugs plasma concentration monitoring. Regarding pharmacodynamics, drug-receptor interaction and the fundamentals of pharmacodynamics will be studied. The criteria and systems for the classification of drugs for diagnostic and therapeutic use will also be considered. The general characteristics of the main pharmaco-therapeutic categories will also be studied, with particular regard to radio drugs and contrast media used in radiology.

i) Absorption and bioavailability. First pass effect. ii) Kinetics of distribution. Pharmaco-protein bond and tissue bond. Volume of distribution. iii) Kinetics of drug elimination. Renal clearance and systemic clearance. iv) drugs metabolism and Excretion. Enzyme induction and inhibition.
Clinical pharmacokinetics: i) therapeutic regimen definition (loading dose, maintenance dose, interval between doses)
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM): i) TDM definition. ii) TDM indications. iii) Techniques used for TDM. iv) examples of drugs undergoing to TDM.
Preclinical trial: i) definition of preclinical trial, EC50 definition, subacute and chronic toxicity studies. ii) Clinical trial, phases of the clinical trial, pharmacovigilance.

Drug and excipient Definition. Mechanism of action of drugs: drugs with specific and non-specific mechanisms of actions. Drugs targets, with examples. Description of concentration-effect curve. Definition and experimental measurement of drug potency, drug efficacy and affinity. Adverse drug reactions (definition and examples). Drugs acting on cardiovascular system (description and examples). Antibacterial and antiviral drugs (description and examples). Analgesic drugs (description and examples). Drugs acting on gastrointestinal apparatus

-Drug absorption, bioavailability and bioequivalence.
-Physiochemical factors in transfer of drug across membranes.
-Routes of administration (oral ingestion, sublingual administration, rectal administration, pulmonary administration, topical application, controlled-release preparation, parenteral injection).
-Distribution of drug, volume of distribution, plasma and tissue protein, blood-CSF barrier and placental barrier, half life.
-Metabolism of drug, clearance, CYP systems, variability in drug metabolism.
-Excretion of drug, renal excretions, biliary and fecal excretion, excretion by other routes.
-Therapeutic drug monitoring.
-Mechanisms of actions of drug.
-Drug receptors, structure-activity relationship, cellular site of drug actions.
-Definition of agonist and antagonist, classification of antagonist, mechanism of receptor antagonism.
-Quantification of drug-receptor interaction, dose/response relationship, concept of affinity, efficacy, potency, and relative efficacy.
-Pharmacological receptors: (G Protein-coupled receptor, receptors as enzyme, ion channel, receptor regulating nuclear transcription).
Pharmacological studies
-Pre-clinical and Clinical pharmacological studies.
Variability in drug response
-Interactions between drugs.
-Genetic variability, pharmacogenomics.

The course is based on lectures using ppt set with images, diagrams and videos. To promote students critical reflection and allow possibility of self-assessment, during the lesson, questions with questions regarding the topics of the course are proposed to the students.

Teacher material provided .
-slides, photocopies of articles):
-Furlanut M. Farmacologia generale e clinica per le lauree triennali. Piccin, Padova
-Neal MJ Medical Pharmacology at a Glance Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (trad. italiana a cura di Richelmi P, Berté F La Farmacologia in uno Sguardo La Goliardica Pavese, Pavia)
Clementi F, Fumagalli G. Farmacologia generale e molecolare UTET, Torino, 2000
-Craig CR, Stitzel RE. Farmacologia moderna con applicazioni cliniche, Antonio Delfino Editore, Roma


Parent course