Social statistics

Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in TOURISM SCIENCE
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
Seat of the course: 
Como - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (35 hours)

Basic notions of math are required (at the level of the second year of a secondary school) to attend the course. All concepts will however be reviewed during the course.

Final Examination: 

The assessment consists of a written exam, in three parts, followed by an oral exam.
- the first part is a test consisting of 6 questions, each with three possible answers.
In case of class exam, 2 points are given to each correct and justified answer; a penalty of -0.5 points is assigned to each wrong answer; no given answers have no points and no penalty. The maximum score is 12/31 points; available time: 18 minutes.
In case of on-line exam, 2 points are given to each correct answer; a penalty of -1 point is assigned to each wrong answer; no given answers have no points and no penalty. The maximum score is 12/31 points; available time: 9 minutes.
- the second part, whose access is reserved only to students that achieved at least 6 points in the first part, is a test with 2 exercises, multiple answer (more than one correct answers) in case of on-line exam or traditional exercises in case of class exam, linked to the two main sections of the course "univariate and bivariate statistics" and "statistical ratios" and give a maximum score of 19/31 points; available time: 40 minutes in case of remote exam and 60 minutes in case of class exam. A sheet with processes, justifications and computations is required both in case of on-line exam as well as of class exam.
- the third part is one filter question about statistical ratios or the computation of a percentage; available time: 3 minutes.
In order to pass the exam one has to answer correctly to the filter question, the score of the multiple answer test must be no lower than 10/19 and the total score of the written exam must be no lower than 17/31 points.
The oral exam, mandatory only for students that have achieved a score larger or equal to 26/31, consists of only one question and gives a score in the interval between -1 and +4 points.
In presence of an on-line exam, the oral exam is mandatory and the written exam will be made void in case of evident deficiency in preparation.
Aim of the exam is to assess reasoning analytic abilities on the course subjects. Language properties and communication abilities are also assessed.

Voto Finale

The aim of the course is to provide students with the quantitative instruments for interpreting summary indicators of data describing economic, business and social phenomena, with reference to problems pertaining the Tourism and Art management.
The course deals with both methodological and applied subjects, and also with subjects which are specific to the curriculum and gives the tools necessary to run quantitative analyses necessary for the courses which take place in the second term of the first year and in the second and third years of the curriculum.
The ability to read and interpret data from a statistical point of view is an expertise useful to all career opportunities opened by the curriculum programme.
The following learning abilities are provided:
- knowledge and ability to apply correctly concepts, terms and methods of Descriptive Statistics;
- ability to classify data by means of tables;
- ability to summarise data by means of appropriate location and variability indices;
- ability to build and interpret index numbers;
- ability to study the relationships between two variables by means of association measures and regression models.

The first part of the course deals with univariate statistical analyses (about one half of the course) then index numbers are presented (about one sixth of the course); the course ends with bivariate statistical analysis.

Introduction and Univariate Statistical Analysis
(about 24 hours, that is about 4 credits)
Statistical methodology and scientific research.
- Statistical approach in natural and social sciences.
- The statistical analysis process: data gathering, classifying, examining and processing (statistical units, variables, frequency distributions).
- Deductive and inductive approach.
Univariate analysis.
- Measurement scales.
- Graphical displays of data.
- Definition and properties of location indices.
- Non-analytical mean values (mode, percentage points).
- Algebraic means (arithmetic, quadratic, geometric, harmonic).
- Mean selection criteria.
- Variability and dissimilarity measures.
- Indices of variability (variance, average differences).
- Indices of dissimilarity (mutability/heterogeneity).
- Absolute, relative and normalised indices.
- Skewness indices.

Index numbers.
(about 6 hours, that is about 1 credit)
- Definition and properties of index numbers
- Simple and weighted, fixed base and changing base index numbers.
- Consumer price indices.

Bivariate Statistical Analysis
(about 5 hours, that is about 1 credit)
- Analysis of conditional distributions.
- Definition of stochastic independence and functional dependence.
- Measures of association (between two categorical variables).

Lecture notes
Boari G., Cantaluppi G. (2018) Notes of descriptive statistics and probabily, EDUCATT, Università Cattolica del S. Cuore, Milano. ISBN 9788893353144.
Syllabus: Sections 1-10 (no slides 10.28-10.35), 11 (only slides 11.1-11.21, 11.30-11.32, 11.38, e 11.40-11.41), 12-14 (no slides 14.14-14.16, 14.19-14.20), 16 (slides 16.1-16.11).

Further readings
Frosini B.V. (2009) Metodi statistici: teoria e applicazioni economiche e sociali, Carocci, Roma. ISBN: 978-88-430-4763-5
Zanella A. (2000) Elementi di statistica descrittiva, CUSL, Milano. ISBN: 9788881322732

Advised texts
European Union, Eurostat (2012) Methodological manual for tourism statistics, Eurostat, Methodologies and Working papers, Publication office of the European Union, Luxembourg. ISBN: 9789279347641
Pasetti P. (2002) Statistica del turismo, Carocci, Roma. ISBN: 9788843022694
Predetti A. (1996) I Numeri Indici. Teoria e pratica dei confronti temporali e spaziali, Giuffrè, Milano. ISBN: 9788814133121

Istat: see Servizi-Turismo

Other teaching material is available on the e-learning platform.


The course is based on 35 lecture hours and 15 hours of exercise that will run in parallel with lectures.

Other companion learning tools (self-assessment tests, videoclips, etc.) will be made available on the e-learning platform.

Further information can be found on the Faculty notice board.