Degree course: 
Corso di Long single cycle degree (6 years) in MEDICINE AND SURGERY
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Basic compulsory subjects
Seat of the course: 
Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (80 hours)

To obtain attendance, the course requires that the student have attended the Biochemistry 1 course. To be admitted to the exam, the student must have passed the biochemistry 1 exam.

Final Examination: 

The note of Biochemistry 2 out of thirty is a partial mark and will average with the mark of Biochemistry 1 to determine the final mark that will be recorded in the electronic booklet.
The Biochemistry 2 exam must be taken in two separate tests taken on different dates, the first will focus on the biochemistry 2 topics will be carried out by administering multiple choice quizzes, and the second by an oral interview on the same topics.
The written test consists of 30 multiple choice questions (five possible answers, one or more correct to be identified by the student) to be carried out in 60 minutes and the topics will concern the understanding of the topics covered in the course. The evaluation will be insufficient if the evaluation of the correct answers will report a value lower than 18. Points will not be taken for incorrect answers and passing the written test gives the right to take the oral part of the exam exclusively within the same appeal.
The questions in the paper tend to define the degree of knowledge (30%), the ability to apply knowledge and understanding (35%) and the ability to learn (35%) in relation to the course program.
The oral test consists of questions always aimed at defining the ability to understand (30%), the ability to apply knowledge and understanding (30%), the autonomy of judgment (10%), the ability to learn (30%).
They will be evaluated
- the degree of depth of the topic,
- the ability to describe molecular structures,
- the ability to analyze the metabolic pathways, highlighting their regulatory points and knowing how to make connections between the various topics.
The clarity in the expression of the concepts presented and the ability to use the appropriate terminology will be particularly appreciated.

Voto Finale

To complete Biochemistry 1 (of which this course represents the necessary continuation also for the purposes of verbalization of the final mark), the course of Biochemistry 2 provides a complete overview of the main metabolisms of human tissues in normal and pathological conditions, fundamental knowledge for training of the future doctor. In particular, the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular and human physiology, the scientific bases of medical procedures and the principles of operation of the tools used in diagnostic and therapeutic practice will be studied in depth.
At the end of the course the student will be able to:
a) describe the cholesterol metabolism and its regulations as well as its role in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis;
b) comment on the specific metabolic pathways that determine the synthesis and catabolism of amino acids and the human pathologies connected to them;
c) discuss heme metabolism by identifying the regulation points and the possible implications in human pathology;
d) recognize and describe the metabolism of nucleotide bases and nucleic acids and their regulations;
e) describe the metabolism of glycoproteins and complex lipids by identifying their regulation points and implications in human pathology;
f) analyze intracellular traffic by analyzing its mechanisms and the different role of the intracellular organelles involved;
g) understand the intracellular signaling pathways and the mechanism of action of hormones;
h) analyze the regulatory role of hormones in human tissues and the pathophysiological implications;
i) comment on the biochemical principles of the following human tissues:
to. liver,
b. intestine,
c. kidney,
d. blood and heart
is. muscle tissue,
f. bones and muscles,
g. nervous system,
h. adipose system.
the. extracellular matrix

The course is divided into these fundamental points that will be addressed according to this scheme:
1- Main metabolisms and their regulation: cholesterol, amino acids and heme metabolism.
2- Metabolism of nucleotides and nucleic acids.
3- Metabolism of glycoproteins.
4- Biochemistry of signal transduction in cells.
5- Biochemistry of hormones.
6- Biochemistry of tissues: liver, intestine, kidney, blood and muscle tissue, heart, bones and muscles, nervous system, adipose.
7- Biochemistry of the extracellular matrix.
8- General metabolic aspects of bioenergetics during fasting.
9- Biochemical transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of energy metabolism.
10- The role of epigenetics in the control of gene transcription.
11- Biochemistry of tumors.

Biosynthesis of lipids and cholesterol, their regulation. Amino acid metabolism: transamination, transdesamination. Defense mechanisms against ammonia toxicity: synthesis of glutamine and urea cycle. Metabolic adaptations in fasting. Biochemistry of cancer. Cellular signaling. Synthesis and catabolism of nucleotides.
Heme metabolism and bilirubin
Hormones: general properties and mechanisms of action. Functions of the hormones of the pituitary hypothalamic axis, steroid hormones, insulin, glucagon, adrenaline.


The course is based on lectures that use power-point presentations set with images, schemes and videos. The screening of films will make it easier to understand the development of some biochemical processes. To promote critical reflection and allow students the possibility of self-evaluation, at the end of each topic, questions with multiple choice questions are proposed with the help of the moodle platform. The tests are then analyzed and discussed with the students, they are not withdrawn by the teacher and have no weight for the final assessment, but reproduce typical questions that will be used during the written part of the exam. Material taken from recent international literature will be used to supplement specific topics.
During the lessons, the teacher will present daily cases and facts that can make us understand the application / importance of the subjects of the teachings. Students are required to attend classes as established in the study program's didactic regulations and to sign the attendance sheet in order to take the exam.
The teacher undertakes to make the presentations projected at lessons and other material of interest (articles) available through the University's IT platforms (e.g. e-learning) to which students have access.
All the material useful for the preparation (texts, articles or other) will be uploaded on the e-learning platform

To meet the teacher, make an appointment by email with the teacher: