Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Nursing
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Basic compulsory subjects
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (45 hours)

To be admitted to the final exam of Human Physiology it is necessary to possess a positive evaluation of the exam of Human Anatomy

Final Examination: 

The assessment of the achievement of the objectives set by the Course provides for a final exam on all topics included in the program.
The Physiology exam consists of a test performed by computer support (PC) comprising 40 multiple choice questions, to be answered in a time of 45 minutes. The evaluation will be 0.825 points for each correct answer and 0 points for each wrong or missing answer. You pass the exam with a score equal to or greater than 18/30.

Voto Finale

Physiology studies the human vital functions and analyses he mechanisms through which the organism realizes ad maintains its internal homeostasis at molecular, cellular and tissue level in spite of the modification of the surrounding environment.
The objective of the Course Human Physiology 1 will be to provide graduates with all the information necessary to understand, from a biophysical-quantitative point of view, the functioning of the various organs and systems of the body under normal conditions and their control by the nervous system central and autonomous and endocrine system.
At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. describe the fundamental functional parameters that characterize the physiological conditions of cells, tissues and organs;
2. explain how cells and tissues work
3. use biophysical-quantitative tools (equations, graphs) to describe and analyze the physiological processes involved;
4. describe the correlations between structure, biophysical behavior and function of organs and systems.
5. describe the mechanisms underlying the coordinated and interactive functioning of several organs and systems
6. analyze the phenomena that lead to possible modifications of the quantitative and functional parameters as the organic conditions vary
7. discuss the topics dealt with clearly and using the appropriate technical language.
8. explain how the changes in functional balance found in physiological conditions lead to the onset of pathophysiological conditions of clinical interest for cells, tissues and organs.

The Course will deal with the physiology and pathology of the following systems:
Central and autonomous nervous system.
Skeletal muscle and locomotion.
Cardiac muscle.
Vascular systemic circulation and lymphatic system.
Pulmonary and coronary circulation. Control of cardiovascular function.
Respiratory system, gas exchanges and transport.
Nervous and chemical control of respiratory function.
Renal system and regulation of volume and osmoticity in extracellular body fluids.
Acid-base equilibrium.
Digestive system.
Endocrine system.

Membrane potential
and action potential. Synapses. Neuromuscular junction. Neuronal coding. Synaptic integration. Sensory systems. Tactile and kinesthetic sensitivity. Tactile receptors. Proprioceptive, thermal and pain sensitivity. Vestibular system. Acoustic, visual, olfactory and gustatory sensitivity. The neuromotor unit. Spinal reflexes. Maintenance of posture. Motor coordination. Voluntary movement. Cortical areas.
Hemodynamics. Speed, section and average pressure in the various sections. Mechanical characteristics of the vessels. Laplace's law. Bernoulli's law. Laminar and turbulent motion. Sphygmic wave. Pressure in the districts of the large and small circle. Capillary exchange of liquid and solutes. Lymphatic system. Nervous and humoral regulation of blood pressure. Pulmonary circle. Coronary circle.
Rest and action potential of myocardial cells. ECG. Receptors, afferent pathways, cardio-regulating center, efferent pathways. Ventricular pressure and volume during the cardiac cycle. Cardiac throw. Cardiac work.
Atmospheric air composition and partial gas pressures. Static lung volumes. Pulmonary and alveolar ventilation. Pressure-volume diagram of the lung and chest wall. Intrapleural depression. Respiratory work. O2 consumption and CO2 production. Respiratory quotient. Alveolar air equation. Alveolus-capillary diffusion of respiratory gases. Transport of O2 and CO2 in the blood. Blood dissociation curves for O2 and CO2 Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Nervous regulation of ventilation.
Ionic volume and composition of the intracellular and extracellular compartments. Glomerular filtration. Renal clearance. Maximum tubular load. Absorption of water, Na +, Cl-, bicarbonates, amino acids, glucose, urea. Secretion of H + and organic substances. Henle loop. Osmoticity of the tubular and interstitial peritubular fluid in the various areas of the loop. Function of the vasa recta.
Buffer systems of the organism. Isoidic principle. Fixed and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis Respiratory and renal regulation of the pH of body fluids.
Energy sources: alactacid, glycolytic and aerobic lactacid mechanism. Caloric value of food and calorie equivalent of O2. Oxygen debt. Basal metabolism, rest and during exercise.
Skeletal muscle function. Isometric, isotonic and isovelocity contraction. Single shock, clone, tetanus. Force-length diagram. Force-speed contraction diagram
General characteristics of the digestive tract. Salivary, gastric, hepatic and pancreatic secretions. Peristaltic movements and their regulation. Gastrointestinal hormones. Digestion and absorption. Structure, mechanism of functioning and control of hormones.
Hormonal function of: anterior, posterior and intermediate pituitary; medullary and cortical of the adrenal glands; thyroid, parathyroid, endocrine pancreas, intestinal wall, gonads

AA.VV. – FISIOLOGIA DELL'UOMO - a cura di P.E Di Prampero e A. Veicsteinas - Casa Editrice Edi-Ermes, Milano
AA.VV. – FISIOLOGIA – a cura di P.Scotto, P. Mondola - Poletto Editore, Milano

The course will be presented through frontal lessons with slides. Students are encouraged to interact with teachers with questions and curiosities. During lectures, the lecturers will also present examples and daily facts that can make sense of the application / importance of the subjects of the lessons.
Students are required to attend the lessons as set out in the teaching regulations of the course and sign the attendance sheet to be able to take the exam.

Prof. Negrini receives students by appointment fixed by e-mail address: