Degree course: 
Corso di Second cycle degree in ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Supplementary compulsory subjects
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (36 hours), Exercise (24 hours)

It is useful, for the understanding of the course, to know the theoretical foundations of Environmental and Occupational Hygiene, as the main risk agents for human health. Attendance of the Environmental and Occupational Hygiene course is recommended. Basics of general biology, physics, inorganic and organic chemistry and environmental chemistry are also very useful. Understanding of the written English language is understood.

Final Examination: 

The verification is a final test. To pass the test, the student must demonstrate adequate theoretical knowledge of the topics covered, ability to make calculations and ability to properly expose the knowledge acquired. The answers will positively evaluate the completeness and synthesis in the presentation of the topics, also using diagrams, graphs and illustrations. Passing the exam is linked to the positive result (minimum assessment of 18 thirtieths)

More specifically:the oral test, lasting about 30 minutes, consists of three different types of questions aimed at ascertaining: 1) ability to fully present a topic (or part of a topic) covered in the course; 2) ability to respond concisely and precisely to a specific request; 3) ability to use the knowledge and skills acquired in order to analyze problems explicitly dealt with in the course.

Voto Finale

The course aims to provide students with the skills necessary to carry out the risk assessment of workers and the general population exposed to chemical, physical and biological hazards, as well as to plan experimental tests for risk assessment to define the improvement actions.
The course also aims to provide the student with in-depth knowledge about the risk assessment for humans and the environment, knowledge related to the main risk agents and the main study methods for their assessment in a context of assessment of the risk (sampling, analysis and exposure assessment) for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment. Finally, through laboratory exercises, we intend to transmit practical knowledge useful for setting up monitoring campaigns for exposure to risk agents in the living and working environments.

At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. recognize and describe the various types of risk agents (chemical, physical and biological) and their classification
2. know the sector regulatory references and be able to consult them
3. plan a campaign to monitor exposure to risk agents and participate in the execution of environmental monitoring campaigns
4. know how to assess the risks associated with exposure to chemical, physical and biological agents to minimize them with appropriate risk management measures

Risk agents: methodological approach to the assessment of exposure with environmental monitoring, with estimation methods and with biological monitoring [4 hours];

Chemical risk agents: Techniques and instruments for monitoring airborne chemical agents (particulates and fibers; gases and vapors). Direct reading tools - with examples [10 hours]

Physical Risk Agents: Physical Risk Agent Measurement Tools and Techniques- with examples [10 hours]:
- noise
- microclimate
- mechanical vibrations
- radiation (Ionizing / Non-Ionizing and ROA) (** only new course arrangement)
- electromagnetic fields (** only new course arrangement)

Sampling and analysis of biological agents [6 hours] (** only new course arrangement)

Exposure estimation models and risk estimation algorithms [2 hours]
Application of Tier 1 and 2 exposure models in CSR REACH and for the assessment of exposure [2 hours]

Case study analysis [6 hours]:
- Case Study 1: Emerging chemical risk agents - occupational and environmental exposure to engineered nanoparticles; probabilistic risk assessment methods
- Case study 2: Physical risk agents - vibration noise measurements in the agricultural sector
- Case Study 3: Biological Agents - verification of the efficiency of abatement of the microbiological load by using a photocatalytic apparatus in vehicles used for public transport (+ indoor contamination)

Laboratory exercises with practical demonstrative activities of the main environmental monitoring methodologies and analytical techniques for chemical and physical risk agents [24 hours]:

- Exercise 1: Qualitative and quantitative determinations of asbestos by phase contrast optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometry for powders;
- Exercise 2: Sampling and gravimetric determination of atmospheric particulate matter,
- Exercise 3: Measurement of noise with integrating sound level meter, measurement of mechanical vibrations with accelerometer + Microclimate measurements with control unit and calculation of PMV and WBGT (moderate environments), IREQ (cold environments) and WBGT (warm environments)
- Exercise 4: Use of risk estimation algorithms and exposure estimation models in practical cases
- Exercise 5: Statistical approaches to the assessment of occupational exposure by inhalation by comparison with limit values and application on real data (UNI 689: 2019 and probabilistic approach) (** only new course arrangement)
- Exercise 6: industrial: simplified approach to the estimation of the concentrations at ground level and identification of the non-significant effects (** only new course arrangement)

Book: none

Slides of lessons: from the e-learning website
During the course, selected technical papers and other supplementary material will be reported, downloadable from the e-learning site or available in the University libraries. Course handouts in pdf format will also be provided and made available on the e-learning platform

Frontal teaching, with slide support. The teaching will be provided by teleconference, alternating the presence in the classroom between the Como and Varese offices.
Case studies and real cases are presented for all topics. The lectures combine a robust theoretical approach with the discussion of case studies. During the lessons, the teacher constantly encourages interaction with students, through moments of discussion and shared analysis of the issues presented, in order to stimulate and develop the ability of critical analysis and to make interdisciplinary relationships.
Laboratory exercises will also be conducted, in order to transmit practical knowledge useful for setting up monitoring campaigns for exposure to risk agents in the living and working environments.

The teacher is available in the classroom before and after the lessons and in his office (DiSAT, Floor -1 “Anello” building in via Valleggio 11, Como), by appointment by request by e-mail (