Degree course: 
Corso di Second cycle degree in ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Supplementary compulsory subjects
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (32 hours), Exercise (32 hours)

Basic knowledge of environmental and analytical chemistry.

Final Examination: 

Oral exam based on two sections:
1- Propose an analytical approach for the analysis of a specific group of analytes or for a specific environmental problem through an oral presentation (or with slides).
2- three short questions on specific sampling and analysis techniques for environmental samples.

The two sections have the same weight for the final evaluation.
The first section will evaluate both absolute knowledge and scientific rigor in the presentation of the theoretical bases. The second section will evaluate the ability to organize a rigorous analytical protocol and the originality of the proposal itself.

Voto Finale

The aim of the course is to present the main techniques for environmental sampling and analysis for different environmental matrices.
The course is divided into a theoretical parts in which will be presented: the principal techniques for sampling of different environmental matrices; the most used pre-treatments and analyses of environmental samples; the problems related with the choice of the best analytical protocols.
The second part of the course will include exercises aiming to prepare and perform a protocol of environmental sampling and analysis, including: sampling scheme setup; material preparation; the performance of a sampling campaign; sample pre-treatment and their laboratory analysis.

At the end of the course, the student will be able to understand the application possibilities of the different analysis techniques presented also in real case studies, discussing the possible alternatives and complementarity between the information from techniques in order to propose a rigorous and complete analytical protocol.

The course aims to offer an overview of the main analytical techniques used in environmental analytical chemistry. The theory section will be divided in three phases (sampling, analysis and data treatment), and in detail will deal with:
1. The most common sampling strategies, treatments and conservation techniques of environmental samples, with a focus on the different environmental compartments and physicochemical properties of the target compounds;
2. The principal techniques of chemical analysis for samples obtained from different environmental compartments;
3. Basics of environmental data treatment, and result communication in different contexts.
The exercises will include the presentation of different case studies and the setup of a specific analytical protocol:
1. Presentation of some practical examples of sampling protocol setups, showing case studies present in literature;
2. Planning, material preparation and development of a sampling campaign;
3. Analysis of samples obtained from different environmental compartments and preparation of a sampling and analysis report.

1 Theory:
1.1 Sampling (16h)
Sampling standards and Quality Assurance – Quality Control (QA-QC)
Sampling techniques and planning
Sample pre-treatments and preparation for analysis
Environmental matrices: Water, Solid (soil – sediment – waste - biota), Air
1.2 Analytical approaches (12h)
Analytical protocol setup, target analytes and Quality Assurance – Quality Control (QA-QC)
Spectroscopic methods
Thermoanalytical methods
Chromatographic methods
Mass spectrometry
Electrochemical methods
X-ray techniques
1.3 Data management (4h)
Data processing
Communication of results
2 Exercises:
2.1 Preparation of an analytical protocol and previous case studies (8h)
Protocol setup: from an environmental problem to analysis report
Examples of previous case studies
2.2 Preparation and performance of a sampling campaign (16h)
Preparation of material for sampling
Sampling campaign performance
Analysis of a water and solid sample
2.3 Preparation of a sampling campaign report (4h)

Slides: see e-learning
Fundamentals of Environmental Sampling and Analysis Chunlong (Carl) Zhang WILEY-INTERSCIENCE
Environmental Sampling and Analysis _ A Practical Guide L. H. Keith Taylor and Francis
Sampling & Analysis of Environmental Chemical Pollutants. A Complete Guide E. P. Popek Academic Press

Classroom lessons (32h), supported by slides which include both the theoretical and the applicative part; all slides are present on e-learning.
Laboratory lectures (32h) supported by slides and supplementary material, including the case studies presented during the course and different standard analytical protocols.

Student meeting:
2nd floor studio, Cubo building, via Valleggio 9, Como
appointment by e-mail,