TOSSICOLOGIA AMBIENTALE E OCCUPAZIONALE CON ELEMENTI DI DIRITTO AMBIENTALE

Degree course: 
Corso di Second cycle degree in ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
Academic year when starting the degree: 
2020/2021
Year: 
1
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
2020/2021
Credits: 
12
Period: 
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
96
Requirements: 

ENVIRONMENTAL AND OCCUPATIONAL TOXICOLOGY

There are no pre-requisite constrains. The basic concepts of General, Inorganic and Organic Chemistry are recommended. Understanding of the written English language is intended to be established.

ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

Basic legal knowledge is useful. A specific lesson will be dedicated to the introduction to fundamental legal concepts.

The verification is divided into two tests, one relating to each module.
To pass both tests, the student must demonstrate adequate theoretical knowledge of the topics covered, ability to make calculations and ability to properly expose the knowledge acquired. The answers will positively evaluate the completeness and synthesis in the presentation of the topics also using diagrams, graphs and illustrations.
Passing the exam is linked to the positive outcome (minimum assessment of 18 thirtieths) of both tests scheduled for each of the two modules. The final evaluation will be the average of the evaluations of the two tests, provided that both are sufficient.

More specifically:

ENVIRONMENTAL AND OCCUPATIONAL TOXICOLOGY
Final written exam. The exam will focus on at least 3 questions related to the course program to define the level of learning and the ability to understand the topics, the terminological property, the ability to apply the acquired knowledge, as well as obviously the communication skills in relation to the theoretical bases of the prevention and risk assessment for health and the environment.

To pass the test, the student must demonstrate adequate theoretical knowledge of the topics covered and the ability to properly expose the knowledge acquired. The answers will positively evaluate the completeness and synthesis in the presentation of the topics also using diagrams, graphs and illustrations.
Passing the exam is linked to the positive outcome (minimum assessment of 18 thirtieths) of the test.

More specifically, a final written test will be carried out to evaluate the learning outcomes, consisting of 6 open-ended questions covering all the topics covered in the course; each correct and complete answer is evaluated 5 points. The candidate, having read the overall assessment, can agree with the Professor on an oral exam on a date to be defined.
The time set for the written test is one hour.

ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAW
Final oral exam. The exam will focus on at least 6 questions related to the course program to define the level of learning and the ability to understand the topics, the terminological property, the ability to apply the acquired knowledge, as well as obviously the communication skills in relation to the theoretical bases of the prevention and risk assessment for health and the environment.

To pass the test, the student must demonstrate adequate theoretical knowledge of the topics covered and the ability to properly expose the knowledge acquired. The answers will positively evaluate the completeness and synthesis in the presentation of the topics also using diagrams, graphs and illustrations. Passing the exam is linked to the positive outcome (minimum assessment of 18 thirtieths) of the test.

More specifically, a final written test will be carried out to evaluate the learning outcomes, consisting of 6 open-ended questions covering all the topics covered in the course; each correct and complete answer is evaluated 5 points. The candidate, having read the overall assessment, can agree with the Professor on an oral exam on a date to be defined.
The time set for the oral test is 30 minute.

Assessment: 
Voto Finale

AIM OF THE COURSE

ENVIRONMENTAL AND OCCUPATIONAL TOXICOLOGY
Study of man-environment interactions, in terms of effects of human activities and anthropogenic pressures on environmental systems and also in
terms of potential effects of the contamination of life and work environments on human health (toxicological risk). Particular emphasis will be given to effects and arising from exposure to contaminants (xenobiotics, endocrine disruptors, atmospheric particulate), to their mechanisms of action, to the
environmental pressure on biological systems in vivo and in vitro (DNA and protein damage, cell damage, reproductive abnormalities, developmental
alterations, teratogenesis and other biomarkers). The genetic, epigenetic and molecular mechanisms that regulate cell cycle and metabolic functions

ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAW
The main objective of the course is to introduce students to the main topics of environmental law, a legal discipline characterized by a high degree of
technicality and interaction with other and different sciences.

LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. assess the toxicological risk from environmental pollutants in order to protect the health of populations in contaminated environments;
2. participate in health impact assessments,
3. manage any environmental problems;
4. communicate by conveying information about the risk
5. toxicological in the most effective way.
6. Know the proposed environmental law issues and issues;
7. Acquire an adequate knowledge of the legal language

ENVIRONMENTAL AND OCCUPATIONAL TOXICOLOGY

Introduction to anatomy, physiology and biochemistry. Elements of General Toxicology: absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of toxicants [2 hours]

Assessment methods of the toxic action: acute, chronic toxicity, genotoxicity. Dose-effect curves, dose-response curves. Mechanisms of receptor and non-receptor action. Definition of NOEL, NOAEL, LOEL, LOAEL, DL50 [4 hours]

Methods for the evaluation of in vitro, in vivo and in silico toxicity [2 hours]

Risk assessment and derivation of occupational and environmental limit values (health based) [2 hours]

Industrial Process Toxicology [8 hours]:
Metals (e.g. Lead, Mercury, Chrome etc.)
Gas (e.g. Sarin, CO etc.)
Solvents (eg Hexane, Toluene, Benzene etc.)
Plant protection products (organophosphorus etc.)

Pathologies of environmental and professional etiology [6 hours]

Environmental impact: regulatory references (SIA-VIA, VAS and VIS) [2 hours]

Impact on soil, water and air of anthropogenic activities and consequent impact on health through the different routes of exposure [4 hours]

Population exposure assessment. “Global” population exposure and Total Exposure Assessment (air in living and working environment, water, food) [2 hours]

IPPC and AIA. Read 152/06 and 81/08 [2 hours]

REACH Regulation - Chemical Safety Assessment, Chemical Safety Report, Exposure Scenario, DNEL and DMEL; GLP and GHS [6 hours]

Application case studies both on substances subject to a ban or restriction, and on industrial processes with high environmental impact and therefore subject to assessment of the Environmental Damage and related corrective actions (petrochemical, steel, industrial accidents, waste-to-energy plants) [8 hours]

Integrated environmental management and certification systems [2 hours]

Risk management, environmental communication and information management, corrective action, environmental policies [2 hours]

ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

The module focuses on some of the main issues of environmental law. After analyzing the principles and sources of environmental law, the focus is on
specific areas:
- environmental assessments (Environmental Impact Assessment, Strategic Environmental Assessment and Impact Assessment)
- the European regulations REACH (concerning the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemical substances) and CLP (related to the classification, labeling and packaging of substances and mixtures)
- the "Seveso" directives: evolution of European legislation on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances - environmental responsibility for preventing and repairing environmental damage
climate change, considering both adaptation and mitigation policies (with a focus on international agreements and on renewable energy and biofuels)
- the protection of biodiversity (with an analysis of international conventions and European legislation on the subject) environmental labels / declarations (with a focus on protecting consumers from the phenomenon of greenwashing)
- the discipline of eco-crimes (with an examination of the law of May 22, 2015, No. 6

ENVIRONMENTAL AND OCCUPATIONAL TOXICOLOGY

Book:

Casarett e Doull' s Tossicologia - I fondamenti dell'azione delle sostanze tossiche - Editore: EMSI ISBN: 9788886669764, Volume: Unico

D.J. Paustenbach "The risk assessment of environmental and human health hazards: a textbook of case studies", A. Wiley-Interscience Publication, J. Wiley & Sons

C.L. Galli, E.Corsini, M. Marinovich. "Tossicologia ",
Ed. Piccin, Padova

Slides of lessons: from the e-learning website

During the course, selected technical papers and other supplementary material will be reported, downloadable from the e-learning site or available in the University libraries. Course handouts in pdf format will also be provided and made available on the e-learning platform

ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

Book: none
Slides of lessons: from the e-learning website
The slides and the relevant legislation will be provided and made available in pdf format by the teacher on the e-learning website.

Frontal teaching, by teleconference, alternating the presence in the classroom between the Como and Varese classrooms and with slide support. Case studies and real case images are presented for all topics.
The lectures combine a robust theoretical approach with the discussion of case studies. During the lessons, the teacher constantly encourages interaction with students, through moments of discussion and shared analysis of the issues presented, in order to stimulate and develop the ability of critical analysis and to make interdisciplinary relationships.

ENVIRONMENTAL AND OCCUPATIONAL LAW
Prof. Cavallo is available in the classroom before and after the lessons and in his office (DiSAT, Floor 1 “Cubo” building in via Valleggio 9, Como), by appointment by request by e-mail (domenico.cavallo@uninsubria.it)

ENVIRONMENTAL LAW
The teacher is available for reception of students at the end of each lesson.