Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Biomedical Laboratory techniques
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
Seat of the course: 
Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (20 hours)

Knowledge of biology, physiology and biochemistry.

Learning Verification takes place only through a final exam in oral form. The exam aims to assess the level of understanding of general pharmacology, as well as the students capacity to use the knowledge learned for evaluation of the essential technical aspects in preparation of preclinical and clinical studies. The achievement by the student of an organic vision of the topics addressed, and in particular the ability to use this knowledge for a correct assessment of the technical aspects in preparation of preclinical and clinical studies, will be evaluated with marks of excellence. The mnemonic and notional knowledge of the topics dealt with, which translates into an exposition not supported by a capacity for synthesis and analysis of the topics dealt with in an organic perspective and a correct but not always appropriate language will lead to discrete evaluations; training gaps and / or inappropriate language, albeit in a context of minimal knowledge of the exam material, will lead to just sufficient grades. Training gaps, inappropriate language, lack of orientation within the texts, will be negatively evaluated.

Voto Finale

Course aims is to provide a solid preparation in general pharmacology and, in particular, relevant applications that technician will be able to face in the course of his professional activity.
Understanding of Expected Learning Outcomes
At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. Know and understand the processes associated with pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, biotransformation, elimination). The conditions that require therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), in particular the definition and indications for TDM, examples of drugs subjected to TDM will be discussed. Pre-clinical drug trials will also be discussed with examples for setting up pre-clinical and clinical trials.
2. Apply the knowledge acquired to the preparation of preclinical and clinical models for the study of pharmacokinetic processes with particular regard to the technical aspects.

Pharmacokinetics: i) Absorption and bioavailability. First pass effect. ii) Kinetics of distribution. Pharmaco-protein bond and tissue bond. Volume of distribution. iii) Kinetics of drug elimination. Renal clearance and systemic clearance. iv) drugs metabolism and Excretion. Enzyme induction and inhibition.
Clinical pharmacokinetics: i) therapeutic regimen definition (loading dose, maintenance dose, interval between doses)
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM): i) TDM definition. ii) TDM indications. iii) Techniques used for TDM. iv) examples of drugs undergoing to TDM.
Preclinical trial: i) definition of preclinical trial, EC50 definition, subacute and chronic toxicity studies. ii) Clinical trial, phases of the clinical trial, pharmacovigilance.

-Drug absorption, bioavailability and bioequivalence.
-Physiochemical factors in transfer of drug across membranes.
-Routes of administration (oral ingestion, sublingual administration, rectal administration, pulmonary administration, topical application, controlled-release preparation, parenteral injection).
-Distribution of drug, volume of distribution, plasma and tissue protein, blood-CSF barrier and placental barrier, half life.
-Metabolism of drug, clearance, CYP systems, variability in drug metabolism.
-Excretion of drug, renal excretions, biliary and fecal excretion, excretion by other routes.
-Elements of clinical Pharmacology
-Variability in drug response (Interactions between drugs.
Genetic variability)

The course is based on lectures using ppt set with images, diagrams and videos. To promote students critical reflection and allow possibility of self-assessment, during the lesson, questions with questions regarding the topics of the course are proposed to the students.

The teacher receives the students every day after personal contact by e-mail (