Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Imaging and Radiotherapy techniques
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
Seat of the course: 
Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Apprenticeship (550 hours)

To access the Internship, students must participate in laboratories and in-depth professional activities with mandatory attendance since these supplementary activities will allow them to acquire specific skills and competences in a protected and simulated situation, preparing themselves for the clinical situations they will experience in the field. In addition, the student must acquire theoretical and practical knowledge in the characterizing disciplines provided (characterizing anatomy and the safety of the patient and operator in diagnostic imaging).

Final Examination: 

The exam will focus on the contents of the professionalizing internship carried out in the various operational areas mentioned above. This test involves the presentation and discussion of Project Work at the student's choice on one of the topics included in the internship objectives and in an oral interview, in order to properly evaluate the student's preparation for the knowledge acquired, the autonomy of judgment regarding the topics covered, as well as the learning ability. The score of the exam will derive from the average of the marks obtained from the outcome of the evaluation given by the interns for each professional sector and from the judgment of the Project Work by the entire exam commission, constituted in addition to the Director of Didactic and Professional Activities and by an internship assistant, taking into account all the skills and objectives required by the training course. The maximum score will be 30/30 with honors.

Voto Finale

The professional internship or Professionalising Training Activity (AFP) represents the fundamental training method for the development of specific skills, reasoning and critical thinking in the professional context of reference. For this purpose, the Student must attend the facilities provided for by the training course and in the periods defined by the Course Council for a total number of CFU equal to 22 equal to 550 AFP hours, which take place from the second semester with increasing loads and complexity for allow a gradual integration of theory and practical activity.The student always acts under the direction and control of the Director of Professionalising Activities who often has a lack of Tutor, although he is followed by didactic and professional support figures (Internship Assistants).
At the end of the course the student will be able to (from general to particular):
Apply the procedures for the preparation and administration of contrast media (under the direct control of the radiologist) and the monitoring of the related parameters of
relevance; apply the tools for assessing the patient's clinical conditions as far as they are concerned, to support the activity of the radiologist for:
- the use of the automatic injector of the contrast medium,
- knowledge and application of the principles of radiation protection,
- knowledge and application of radiological investigation protocols with and without m.d.c.,
- knowledge and setting of the acquisition parameters,
- the application of dose reduction strategies,
- recognition of artifacts and reduction of their effects.
Use and manage digital systems for the treatment, transmission and storage of imaging;
describe the radiological anatomy and clinical indications useful for carrying out the tests
diagnostics aimed at acquiring 1st level breast imaging; explain the physical principles underlying the functioning of the digital equipment subject to training in interventional vascular and extra vascular radiology, neuroradiology, hemodynamics; illustrate the organization of a Radiotherapy Service; present the general aspects and the application of the operating principles of Radiotherapy equipment; describe the general aspects and the application of the necessary skills in assisting in radiotherapy and brachytherapy treatments, describe the organization of a Nuclear Medicine Service, apply Nuclear Medicine imaging techniques; apply radio-protectionist rules in Nuclear Medicine, describe the organization of a Health Physics Service; use and manage the equipment used in a Health Physics Service; apply knowledge related to the use of safety management equipment and clinical risk reduction.

The internship training project for the second year will offer the student the opportunity to experiment concretely with the technique of radiological projections, the basic techniques of radiology with contrast media, awareness of the multidisciplinary complexity of the diagnostic and therapeutic process, the possibility of identify the patient's needs by responding with adequate technical and relationship skills.
The practical internship program provides for a calendar rotation in all sectors of radiology, in particular in basic, traumatological and emergency, senological radiodiagnostic services.
In particular, the following topics will be studied:
- Define the elements of complexity related to the relationship between the professional medical technician in medical radiology and the user;
- Identify and understand the critical elements in the therapeutic diagnostic process related to the protection of privacy;
- Identify the main individual protection devices from ionizing radiation, describing their correct use;
- Knowing how to collaborate with all the professional figures involved during the team exams.

 Carriero A, Papa A, Borraccino C, Diagnostic imaging Conventional Radiology. Theoretical-practical tables, Casa Ed. Idelson-Gnocchi srl, 2008
 Balducci M, Cellini F, D’Angelillo R.M, Mattiucci G.C, Cornacchione P, Pasini D, Elements of Manual Radiotherapy for TSRM, SEU Rome; 2013
 Mitchell DG, Cohen M, Magnetic Resonance Principles, Saunders publisher, 2004
 Donato L. (edited by), Fundamentals of Nuclear Medicine. Techniques and Applications
 Volterrani D., Erba P.A., Mariani G. Foundations of Nuclear Medicine. Ed. Springer 2010


Professional workshops will be carried out to facilitate the student in entering the shooting-cynus path, also through theoretical-practical tests in progress (planned by the Director of Professional Activities, through an adequately trained teaching staff), aimed at verifying the skills of professionalizing and understanding learning, problem-solving and communication skills.

The teacher receives the students at his office in via Ottorino Rossi Varese, by appointment requested by writing to the teacher's e-mail address: