Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Imaging and Radiotherapy techniques
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Basic compulsory subjects
Seat of the course: 
Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (24 hours)

No specific background is required, but general algebric concepts including metric conversion, proportion, power and logarithm.

For the CHEMISTRY AND PROPAEDEUTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY module, the test is written and consists of 30 multiple choice quizzes, one of which is exact. Seventeen correct answers are required to obtain a sufficient minimum score.
For the BIOLOGY module, the verification consists of a test with 15 open-ended questions. The result will be expressed in thirtieths.
An oral exam of 5-10’ can follow both partial tests, if the teacher deems it is necessary to better asses the preparation.

The examination of the integrated course is unique, as for all integrated courses, and includes the two disciplines that are part of it. Note that:
- the final vote is unique and represents the average for the assessments obtained in the two disciplines;
- insufficiency in a discipline compromises the outcome of the whole exam, which must be repeated with a new registration.

Voto Finale

Approaching the fundamentals of general chemistry and introducing biochemistry and cell biology enough to understand the structure and role of some biological macromolecules. Knowing the chemical basis of biological phenomena, mostly those important in physiology, diseases, and clinical practice, at the level of cells, tissues and total body. Approaching the own language and method of experimental life sciences.

At the end, the student should be able
1. To recognize the atomic structure of biological molecules as the basis of their interaction in the physiologic environment
2. To distinguish the main parameters of biological solutions
3. To discuss thermodynamic and kinetic requirements of biological reactions.
4. To know the architecture of cells and subcellular organelles
5. To distinguish mitosis from meiosis
6. To distinguish necrosis from apoptosis

Chemistry and propaedeutical biochemistry

The macromolecules of life. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The plasma membrane, the nucleus, the mitochondria, the smooth rough endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus. Membrane transports. The membrane potential. Cell replication: mitosis and meiosis. Apoptosis.

1) CHEMICAL BONDS. Covalent and ionic bonding, molecules and crystals
2) SOLUTIONS. Water properties, solvation and electrolytes, hydrogen bond, concentration of the solutions.
3) ACID-BASE BALANCE. Fundamentals (strength of the acids and the bases pH, pK), buffering, biological buffers, Handerson-Hasselbalch equation
4) BIOENERGETICS (I). Principles of the thermodynamics, free energy and spontaneous reactions, high-energy bonds.
5) BIOENERGETICS (II). Redox potentials, redox pairs of particular biological importance, oxidative phosphorylation.
6) ENZYMES. Reaction rate and chemical equilibrium, catalysts and biological catalysis, specificity and control of enzymatic reactions
7) ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. Functional groups: alcohol, aldehydes, ketones, carboxyl acids, amines. Nomenclature and main characteristics. Main types of isomers. Aromatic compounds.
8) LIPIDS. Fatty acids, triglycerides and phospholipids. Detergents and micelles. NUCLEIC ACIDS. Nitrogenous bases and nucleotides, DNA and RNA
9) CARBOHYDRATES. Monosaccharides, pentoses, hexoses, anomers and epimers; glycosidic bond, di- and polysaccharides
10) AMINOACIDS AND PROTEINS. General structure and properties of the main side chains. Peptide bond and protein structure.

Chemistry and propaedeutical biochemistry
All didactic material presented in the classes as well the one necessary for the preparation of the examination (slides, pantries, exercises) is available in the e-learning platform.
Textbook suggested according to the individual preferences (written in Italian).
M. Samaja, R. Paroni - Chimica e Biochimica per le lauree triennali dell’area biomedica – Piccin editore (simple but complete, suitable for the Biochemistry class too).

Fiecchi A., Galli Kienle M., Scala A, Chimica e propedeutica biochimica - edi ermes editore (synthetic and complete);

Stefani S., Taddei N. - Chimica, Biochimica e Biologia applicata - Zanichelli editore (more details and points of view);

Roberti R., Alunni Bistocchi G., Elementi di Chimica e Biochimica - McGraw Hill editore (very simple and synthetic).

Chimica, Biochimica e biologia applicata, 2a edizione, 2008, ZANICHELLI.

Chemistry and propaedeutical biochemistry
The class consists of lectures (each one takes 2 hours) covering the entire exam program. Also available on the e-learning platform are exercises, handouts and on-line treatment of the class topics.

For the course, frontal lessons are foreseen providing for the projection of videos (basically in Italian but, in cases of recently published material, also in English). During the classroom explanation, students will be stimulated to interact with the teachers with questions and curiosities.

The teachers meet the students by appointment to be made by writing to the institutional email addresses