Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Physiotherapy
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Basic compulsory subjects
Seat of the course: 
Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (24 hours)

Please refer to the whole Integrated Course description

Please refer to the whole Integrated Course description

Voto Finale

Please refer to the whole Integrated Course description

In the physiology module the student will learn the basic principles of cell physiology, the basic functionality of systems and systems (nervous, muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, endocrine and digestive systems), as well as the relationships existing between them

Blood:General functions. Hematocrit. Plasma and serum. Coagulation.Circulatory system:Distribution of blood volume (large and small circle, heart, arteries, capillaries, veins). Speed, section and average pressure in the various sections. Static of the circle. Mechanical characteristics of the vessels. Bernoulli's law applied to the circulatory system. Circle dynamics. Factors that determine the motion of a fluid. Law of Poiseuille (physiological meaning). Laminar and turbulent motion. Sphygmic wave. Minimum, maximum, average pressure: factors that determine them. Pressure distribution in the districts of the large and small circle. Sphygmic wave speed, circle time. Liquid and solute exchanges between capillaries and interstitial tissue. Interstitial volume control. Lymph formation mechanism. Special regions. Pulmonary circle.
Heart:Authoriticity and conductivity of the heart muscle. Location of the pacemaker. Resting potential and action potential in undifferentiated myocardial cells and pacemakers. General meaning of the electrocardiogram. Control of cardiac rhythmicity. Receptors, afferent pathways, carder center, efferent pathways. Cardiac mechanics. Valve mechanisms. Ventricular pressure and volume during the cardiac cycle. Heart throat. Heart work. Performance of the heart.Respiratory System:Composition of atmospheric air and partial gas pressures. Spirometry and static lung volumes. Pulmonary and alveolar ventilation. Static. Pressure-volume diagram of the lung and of the relaxation chest wall. Intrapleural depression. Dynamic. Respiratory work. Gas exchanges. O2 consumption and CO2 production. Respiratory quotient. Alveolar air composition. Alveolar air equation. Alveolar-capillary diffusion of respiratory gases. Transport of O2 in the blood. Hemoglobin dissociation curves for O2. Effect of pH, CO2, temperature and DPG on the dissociation curve. CO2 transport in the blood. Blood dissociation curves for CO2. Ventilation-perfusion ratio.
Excretory system:Volume and ionic composition of the intracellular and extracellular compartments. Glomerular filtration. Composition of the glomerular filtrate. Glomerular autoregulation. Maximum threshold concentration and tubular load. Proximal convoluted tubule. Water absorption, Na +, Cl-, bicarbonates, amino acids, glucose, urea. Secretion of H + and organic substances. Bend of Henle. Counter current multiplier system of ionic concentration. Osmoticity of the tubular and peritubular interstitial fluid in the various districts of the loop. Vasa recta function. Distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Optional absorption of water and solutes. Hormonal control.Acid base balance:Body buffer systems. Description of acidosis and fixed and respiratory alkalosis Respiratory and renal regulation of blood pH.Energy metabolism:Energy sources: alattacid, glycolytic and aerobic lactate mechanism. Oxygen debt. Basal metabolism, rest and during exercise.Muscle and locomotion:Motor function and braking of skeletal muscles. Elastic elements in series and in parallel with the contractile material. Isometric, isotonic and isovelocation contraction. Single shock, clonus, tetanus. Force-length diagram. Shortening force-speed diagram.
Nervous system:Cellular neurophysiology Resting membrane potential. Time constant and space of nerve fibers. Threshold, under- and supra-liminal current. Law of all or nothing. Action potential and its propagation. Synaptic function. Properties of synapses. Chemical mediators. Unidirectional conduction: delay, excitation or inhibition. Coupling between action potential and mediator release: role of Ca2 +. Post-synaptic receptors. Excitatory post-synaptic potential (EPSP) and inhibitory (IPSP). Neuromuscular junction: the motive plate. Neuronal coding. Integration of post-synaptic signals: temporal summation, convergence and spatial summation. Transformation of post-synaptic effects into repetitive discharges of neurons. Sensory systems. General characteristics of sens

AA.VV. Fisiologia dell’Uomo Ed. Edi Ermes
AA.VV. Fisiologia Umana Vol 1 & 2 Ed. Edi Ermes
Berne Levy Fisiologia Ed. CEA
Guyton Fisiologia Medica Ed. CEA
Kandel Principi di Neuroscienze Ed. CEA

Videorecorded lessons and weekly live sessions

Prof. Moriondo receives by appointment. Please contact the teacher by email at