Degree course: 
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Seat of the course: 
Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 

To be admitted to the final exam it is necessary to possess a positive evaluation of the exam of Human Anatomy and knowledges of histology, basic biology, chemistry and biochemistry. The students will also have microbiology in the same semester.

Final Examination: 

The assessment of the achievement of the objectives set by the Course provides for a final exam on all topics included in the program.
The Human Physiology exam consists of a test performed by computer support (PC) comprising 40 multiple choice questions, to be answered in a time of 45 minutes. The evaluation will be 0.825 points for each correct answer and 0 points for each wrong or missing answer. You pass the exam with a score equal to or greater than 18/30.
In the General Pathology exam the student must pass both a written test of 31 questions to be solved in 30 minutes. The questions will be related to the course content; and will be structured on: knowledge acquisition and understanding (45%) and application of the knowledge acquired (35%), judgment autonomy (10%), and learning ability (10%).

Voto Finale

The course includes two modules: Human Physiology and General Pathology.
Human Physiology describes the human vital functions and analyses he mechanisms through which the organism realizes ad maintains its internal homeostasis at molecular, cellular and tissue level in spite of the modification of the surrounding environment.
The objective of the Course Human Physiology will be to provide graduates with all the information necessary to understand, from a biophysical-quantitative point of view, the functioning of the various organs and systems of the body under normal conditions and their control by the nervous system central and autonomous and endocrine system.
The General Pathology course provides the students with the fundamentals of modern cellular and molecular pathology.

At the end of the course the student will be able to:
1. describe the fundamental functional parameters that characterize the physiological and pathological conditions of cells, tissues and organs;
2. explain how cells and tissues work
3. use biophysical-quantitative tools (equations, graphs) to describe and analyze the physiological and pathological processes involved;
4. describe the correlations between structure, biophysical behavior and function of organs and systems.
5. describe the mechanisms underlying the coordinated and interactive functioning of several organs and systems
6. analyze the phenomena that lead to possible modifications of the quantitative and functional parameters as the organic conditions vary
7. discuss the topics dealt with clearly and using the appropriate technical language.
8. explain how the changes in functional balance found in physiological conditions lead to the onset of pathophysiological conditions of clinical interest for cells, tissues and organs.

Human Physiology module: the course will deal with the physiology and pathology of the following systems:
Central and autonomous nervous system.
Skeletal muscle and locomotion.
Cardiac muscle.
Vascular systemic circulation and lymphatic system.
Pulmonary and coronary circulation. Control of cardiovascular function.
Respiratory system, gas exchanges and transport.
Nervous and chemical control of respiratory function.
Renal system and regulation of volume and osmoticity in extracellular body fluids.
Acid-base equilibrium.
Digestive system.
Endocrine system.
Module of General Pathology
The course deals with the investigation of those pathological mechanisms common to all tissue-cell pathology; Etiology, Pathogenesis, Morphologic changes, Functional derangements and clinical significance. Attention is paid to the processes of cellular adaptation, cell death, cellular accumulation, tissue repair, inflammation, immunology and immunopathology, and neoplasia. This course takes the basic science that the student has learned in previous courses to clinical concepts.

Human Physiology:
Membrane potential and action potential. Synapses. Neuromuscular junction. Neuronal coding. Synaptic integration. Sensory systems. Tactile and kinesthetic sensitivity. Tactile receptors. Proprioceptive, thermal and pain sensitivity. Vestibular system. Acoustic, visual, olfactory and gustatory sensitivity. The neuromotor unit. Spinal reflexes. Maintenance of posture. Motor coordination. Voluntary movement. Cortical areas.
Hemodynamics. Speed, section and average pressure in the various sections. Mechanical characteristics of the vessels. Laplace's law. Bernoulli's law. Laminar and turbulent motion. Sphygmic wave. Pressure in the districts of the large and small circle. Capillary exchange of liquid and solutes. Lymphatic system. Nervous and humoral regulation of blood pressure. Pulmonary circle. Coronary circle.
Rest and action potential of myocardial cells. ECG. Receptors, afferent pathways, cardio-regulating center, efferent pathways. Ventricular pressure and volume during the cardiac cycle. Cardiac throw. Cardiac work.
Atmospheric air composition and partial gas pressures. Static lung volumes. Pulmonary and alveolar ventilation. Pressure-volume diagram of the lung and chest wall. Intrapleural depression. Respiratory work. O2 consumption and CO2 production. Respiratory quotient. Alveolar air equation. Alveolus-capillary diffusion of respiratory gases. Transport of O2 and CO2 in the blood. Blood dissociation curves for O2 and CO2 Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Nervous regulation of ventilation.
Ionic volume and composition of the intracellular and extracellular compartments. Glomerular filtration. Renal clearance. Maximum tubular load. Absorption of water, Na +, Cl-, bicarbonates, amino acids, glucose, urea. Secretion of H + and organic substances. Henle loop. Osmoticity of the tubular and interstitial peritubular fluid in the various areas of the loop. Function of the vasa recta.
Buffer systems of the organism. Isoidic principle. Fixed and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis Respiratory and renal regulation of the pH of body fluids.
Energy sources: alactacid, glycolytic and aerobic lactacid mechanism. Caloric value of food and calorie equivalent of O2. Oxygen debt. Basal metabolism, rest and during exercise.
Skeletal muscle function. Isometric, isotonic and isovelocity contraction. Single shock, clone, tetanus. Force-length diagram. Force-speed contraction diagram
General characteristics of the digestive tract. Salivary, gastric, hepatic and pancreatic secretions. Peristaltic movements and their regulation. Gastrointestinal hormones. Digestion and absorption. Structure, mechanism of functioning and control of hormones.
Hormonal function of: anterior, posterior and intermediate pituitary; medullary and cortical of the adrenal glands; thyroid, parathyroid, endocrine pancreas, intestinal wall, gonads
Module of General Pathology
The arguments include:
- extrinsic causes, examples and mechanisms of action of physical and chemical agents as well as poisons and nutritional factors
- Intrinsic causes, inheritance and examples of genetic diseases.
- Pathogenesis, morphological changes and functional alterations cellular alteration concepts
- causes of cell damage
- cellular adaptation, growth and differentiation; atrophy hypotrophy/hypoplasia; hypertrophy; hyperplasia; metaplasia
- Cell death: necrosis and apoptosis
- Healing and repair of injuries
- Immunity and the immune system
- The inflammatory response: acute inflammation, chronic inflammation, inflammation associated pathologies, the innate immune response, cellular and chemical defense barriers
- Acquired immunity: lymphoid organs, cellular and chemical mediators, the humoral response and immunoglobulin classes, cell mediated responses, specificity, diversity and memory in the immune response, the major histocompatability complex, vaccines, active and passive immunity, acquired and congenital immuno-deficiencies.
- Hypersensitivities,

AA.VV. – FISIOLOGIA DELL'UOMO - a cura di P.E Di Prampero e A. Veicsteinas - Casa Editrice Edi-Ermes, Milano
AA.VV. – FISIOLOGIA – a cura di P.Scotto, P. Mondola - Poletto Editore, Milano
“G.M. PONTIERI: Elementi di PATOLOGIA GENERALE per i Corsi di Laurea in Professioni Sanitarie. Piccin

The course of Human Physiology will be presented through frontal lessons with slides. Students are encouraged to interact with teachers with questions and curiosities. During lectures, the lecturers will also present examples and daily facts that can make sense of the application / importance of the subjects of the lessons.
Students are required to attend the lessons as set out in the teaching regulations of the course and sign the attendance sheet to be able to take the exam.
The course of General Pathology objectives will be achieved through frontal lessons for a total of 36 hours, on e-learning: PPT presentations, videos. The attendance of the lessons is obligatory.

Prof. Negrini receives students by appointment fixed by e-mail address:
The professor of General Pathology will receive students in his office (Via Monte Generoso 71, “Ex Colonia Agricola”) after making an appointment by e-mail.


  • Credits: 2
    Place of teaching: Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
  • Credits: 3
    Place of teaching: Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria