Degree course: 
Corso di Long single cycle degree (6 years) in School of Dentistry
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Basic compulsory subjects
Seat of the course: 
Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (54 hours)

Basic knowledge of Biology, Chemistry, Histology, Anatomy already acquired is required to face the entrance test and during the training course of the secondary schools

Final Examination: 

The oral exam carried out electronically includes:
- the observation of an image with the comment of the microscopic field up to the definition of the fabric or ultrastructural detail
- Questions about the program carried out
Single final grade out of thirty.

The exam consists of an oral test which includes questions relating to the individual disciplines (cytology, histology and embryology) included in the program of the Histology course.
The exam aims to evaluate:
- the level of in-depth knowledge, the accuracy and completeness of the information acquired;
- communication skills and ownership in the use of scientific terminology
- the ability to comment comprehensively, as taught in class, some images of microscopic preparations to demonstrate recognition of cyto-histological structures.
The skills acquired must from then on be the student's cultural background, as they will always be useful for understanding the problems presented in subsequent courses.
The final mark is unique, in a range that will vary from eighteen to thirty thirtieths with honors, obtained by demonstrating the degree of depth of the topics.

Voto Finale

In order to prepare the student to learn the method for dealing with the patient with oral-dental problems, the integrated course of histology, basic subject, provides for the detailed study of three disciplines that are provided by the same teacher: cytology, histology and human embryology .
Cytology is the biological discipline that studies the structure and functions of cells
Histology delves into the microscopic structure of tissues and organs
Embryology studies embryonic development, that is, the very early stages of life, which begin with the zygote.

During the course many topics will be illustrated concerning:
- the morphology and functions of human cells in its various compartments and organelles;
- the microscopic structure and morpho-functional relationships of the different tissues of the human organism. Competent and differentiated cellular structures and extracellular compartments with particular reference to the tissues of the tooth and its restraint systems;
- the gamete formation processes and the first stages of embryonic development, substantially the first eight weeks, focusing in particular on the organogenesis of dental tissues;
- many images of optical microscopy, transmission and scanning electronics will be commented.

The student will have to understand and learn the concepts required by the disciplines in order to pass the exam and to begin to prepare the fundamental knowledge bases to face the study of the subjects that will follow in the course of the Degree Course.

At the end of the course, the student must be able to:

- describe the morphological and functional organization characteristics of cell structures in their various compartments and organelles and of the main human tissues with particular reference to the tissues of the tooth and its restraint systems;
- explain the basic concepts of gametogenesis and the characteristics of human reproduction from the earliest stages of embryonic development;
- distinguish and describe the characteristics of the structure of the dental tissues and their embryological formation;
- comment on images of optical microscopy, transmission and scanning electronics.
- discuss the topics addressed using the appropriate scientific language

Plasmalemma and membrane systems: REL, RER, Golgi, nuclear membranes. The glycocalyx. The ribosome and protein synthesis. Endo- and exocytosis. Cell junctions.
The cytoskeleton. Contractile proteins, eyelashes, flagella, microvilli.
Organelles: Mitochondria, lysosomes, peroxisomes. Cell phones included.
The nucleus and nucleic acids. The cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis.

The lining epithelial tissues. Mode of secretion and glandular epithelia.
Striated, cardiac and smooth muscle tissue.
Connective tissue and the extracellular matrix.
Dental tissues.
The nervous tissue and the glia.

Gametogenesis. Fertilization.
Implantation and development of the zygote. Gastrulation and formation of the three embryonic sheets.
Development of the head and neck. Pharyngeal arches. Odontogenesis.
Elements of organogenesis of the main organs and systems

General concepts on origins, aims and instruments of Histology.
The cell membrane and the inner membranes: SER, RER, Golgi, nuclear membranes. The glycocalyx. The ribosome and protein synthesis. Endo- and exocytosis. Cell junctions.
The cytoskeleton. Contractile proteins, cilia and flagella.
Cell organules: mitochondria, lysosomes, perossisomes. Cell inclusions.
The nucleus and the nuclear content. The cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis.
The tissues: the epithelia. The secretion and the glands.
The muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, smooth.
The connective tissues and the extracellular matrix. The dental tissues.
The nervous tissue and the glia.
The Gametogenesis. The fecondation.
Implant and development of the zygote. The formation of the three-layers embryo.
Development of the head and neck . Odontogenesis.
Concepts of organogenesis

The following texts are recommended
- Rosati and Colombo. Histology. Edi Ermes
- Monesi. Histology. Piccin
- Gartner, J.L. Hiatt: Histology. EdiSES.
- And Italian. De Caro, Galli. Langman's medical embryology. Masson
- K.L. Moore. The development of man. Zanichelli
However, all recent university texts that treat human histology and embryology are valid

due to the pandemic events, the course will be structured with synchronous and asynchronous lessons organized on the microsoft Teams platform. In synchronous mode, the teacher carries out the lesson live using Microsoft Teams by activating the recording of the lesson.
To ensure compliance with the legislation relating to privacy and, in particular the principle of minimization, in this mode of delivery the teacher must ensure compliance with the following rules.
Students do not have to activate the video for the entire duration of the recording and can interact with the teacher preferably in audio or through chat
The material is made available to the student for free consultation and it is absolutely forbidden to disseminate it to third parties who are not authorized to access it and to download it on their device.

The course is based on lectures that use ppt presentations set with images, drawings, tables, schemes that are commented on in the classroom.
To help the student, the slides of the course are provided in pdf format available on the e-learning platform for the use of the single student only.
Students are invited to speak during the lesson by actively participating in the discussion.
Bibliographical references are indicated for further information.
We begin to become familiar with the most appropriate means that lead to implement the bibliographic research that will be used later.
We recommend access to image and video sites on the internet.

The teacher is available for meetings and clarifications by arranging an appointment via email: marcella.reguzzoni@uninsubria.it
The meetings take place in Varese at the Human Morphology Laboratory, Via Monte Genero 71, Biomedical Pole ex agricultural colony. tel 0332 217456
Announce yourself at the concierge and / or press button 1 on the intercom