CHEMISTRY AND PROPEDEUTIC BIOCHEMISTRY

Degree course: 
Corso di Long single cycle degree (6 years) in MEDICINE AND SURGERY
Academyc year when starting the degree: 
2020/2021
Year: 
1
Academyc year when helding the course: 
2020/2021
Course type: 
Basic compulsory subjects
Seat of the course: 
Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
Credits: 
5
Period: 
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
60
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (50 hours), Laboratory (10 hours)
Requirements: 

There are no specific prerequisites, although notions of general chemistry, physics and mathematics can be of help for a faster and more rational understanding of the subject.

Students who in the national selection test obtained a score in the "chemistry" section less than a quarter of the maximum obtainable score, will have additional training obligations (OFA) which will be filled by following additional lessons (made available on the e-learning platform by the teacher) and taking a test. Students who fail the OFA test successfully will not be able to take the course exam.

Final Examination: 
Orale

To verify the learning of the knowledge and skills imparted in class, a written exam will take place. This exam will be divided into two parts. In the first part, the chemistry exam consists of 25 multiple choice questions (five possible answers, at least one of which is true and to be identified by the student) regarding the understanding of the topics covered.
In the second part of the exam, exercises are foreseen which will recognize two chemical structures of which the student will have to write the name and finally the student will be asked to write three formulas of simple organic molecules (chosen from carbohydrates, lipids or amino acids that have been treated in the course).
The final evaluation of the written test will take into account both the multiple choice test (for a maximum of 25 points) and the exercises (for a maximum of 5 points), the result of the exam will be sufficient if the combined results of the two written tests will exceed the value of 18.
At the request of the students, the papers will be available to students up to seven days after the date of the appeal and then definitively archived for a period of five years.
During the emergency period for coronavirus contagion (COVID-19), the examinations may also be performed orally using remote videoconferencing systems. Alternatively, the elearning platform will be used to submit students to a remote test using the computer structured in a similar way to that written on paper.

Assessment: 
Voto Finale

The course aims to provide the basic knowledge to be able to understand the main biological phenomena at cellular and tissue level in a chemical and biochemical key. The aim of the course is to convey to the student the understanding of the chemical reactions at the basis of life, the chemical properties of the constituents of living matter and biological macromolecules, including the mechanism of action of enzymes, the foundations of cellular bioenergetics, the structure and the mechanisms of nucleic acid replication, the mechanisms of control of gene expression and the processes of protein synthesis. The course covers the fundamental laws of chemical transformations, the concept of molecular structure and organization, spatial orientation, the role of different molecules in the construction of biological structures and in the cellular or organism economy, of the main categories of nutrients, and of their value in the context of a correct diet.

GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Overview of chemistry history.
A) Structure of the atom: The nucleus: Nature of the nucleus.
B) Structure of the atom: the electrons. Bohr model, wave nature of electron, stationary wave, orbital shape, quantum numbers, energy levels, orbital energy, electronic configuration of atoms, periodicity of external electronic configuration, periodic properties of elements.
C) Heteromonuclear diatomic molecules: Ionic and covalent bonds, Lewis rules, VSEPR theory, chemical bond formation, molecular orbital theory, valence bond theory, distance and bond strength.
D) Gaseous State and its laws
E) Liquid state and its laws.
F) Thermodynamics. Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy, Free energy, Free energy and the composition of a system, Chemical equilibrium, thermochemistry, Law of Hess and applications of thermodynamics to biological processes.
G) Solutions :
H) Chemical equilibrium
I) Acids and Bases
L) Electrochemistry.
M) Chemical kinetics
N) Inorganic chemistry characteristics of the fundamental elements for medical-biological interest.

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
A) Carbon hybridization and molecular geometry.
B) Alkanes.
C) Alkenes.
D) Dienes.
E) Alkines.
F) Cycloalkanes.
G) Aromatic hydrocarbons and their main reactions.
H) Halogen Derivatives.
I) Alcohols and their derivatives. L) Polyalcohols
M) Thiols and Thiols of biological interest.
N) Phenols.
O) Aldehydes and ketones.
P) Carboxylic acids and derivatives.
Q) Amine

PROPEDEUTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY
A) Carbohydrates: nomenclature and classification of aldoses and ketosis.
B) amino acids and proteins: Chemical classification of amino acids, reactivity of the carboxylic and aminic group, D-L series and their biological importance. Peptide bond and chemical-physical characteristics. Notes on the structure of proteins, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. Isoelectric point of proteins.
C) Lipids: Simple lipids: fatty acids, nomenclature. Complex lipids: triglycerides, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Notes on the structure of biological membranes. Cholesterol and its derivatives.
D) Structure of nucleic acids and nucleotides.

Contents and program of the course

GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Overview of chemistry history.
A) Structure of the atom: The nucleus: Nature of the nucleus.
B) Structure of the atom: the electrons. Bohr model, wave nature of electron, stationary wave, orbital shape, quantum numbers, energy levels, orbital energy, electronic configuration of atoms, periodicity of external electronic configuration, periodic properties of elements.
C) Heteromonuclear diatomic molecules: Ionic and covalent bonds, Lewis rules, VSEPR theory, chemical bond formation, molecular orbital theory, valence bond theory, distance and bond strength.
D) Gaseous State and its laws
E) Liquid state and its laws.
F) Thermodynamics. Internal energy, Enthalpy, Entropy, Free energy, Free energy and the composition of a system, Chemical equilibrium, thermochemistry, Law of Hess and applications of thermodynamics to biological processes.
G) Solutions :
H) Chemical equilibrium
I) Acids and Bases
L) Electrochemistry.
M) Chemical kinetics
N) Inorganic chemistry characteristics of the fundamental elements for medical-biological interest.

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
A) Carbon hybridization and molecular geometry.
B) Alkanes.
C) Alkenes.
D) Dienes.
E) Alkines.
F) Cycloalkanes.
G) Aromatic hydrocarbons and their main reactions.
H) Halogen Derivatives.
I) Alcohols and their derivatives. L) Polyalcohols
M) Thiols and Thiols of biological interest.
N) Phenols.
O) Aldehydes and ketones.
P) Carboxylic acids and derivatives.
Q) Amine

PROPEDEUTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY
A) Carbohydrates: nomenclature and classification of aldoses and ketosis.
B) amino acids and proteins: Chemical classification of amino acids, reactivity of the carboxylic and aminic group, D-L series and their biological importance. Peptide bond and chemical-physical characteristics. Notes on the structure of proteins, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. Isoelectric point of proteins.
C) Lipids: Simple lipids: fatty acids, nomenclature. Complex lipids: triglycerides, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Notes on the structure of biological membranes. Cholesterol and its derivatives.
D) Structure of nucleic acids and nucleotides

Tagliatesta - Chimica generale e inorganica- Ediermes
Botta - Chimica organica - Ediermes
McMurry - Chimica organica un approccio biologica - Zanichelli
Bellini - Chimica medica e prop. biochimica - Zanichelli
Masterton Chimica Piccin

Oral lectures (50 hours) will be imparted to students by using slide projections (usually in Italian but, in cases of recently published material, also in English). During the explanation in the classroom the students are invited to interact with the teacher with questions and curiosity. During the lectures the teacher will also present cases and daily facts that can make understand the application / importance of the subjects of the teachings.

The course also includes hours of supplementary activities (10 hours) dedicated to the study of subjects more related to experimental and laboratory medicine.

Students have the obligation to attend classes as established in the educational regulations of the study course and to sign the time sheet for taking the exam.
Teacher undertake to make projected presentations available to lectures and other material of interest (articles) through the University computer platforms (eg elearning) to which students have access.

In the teacher's presentations there will be links to web pages for further information.
For reception students make an appointment by email with the teacher - davide.vigetti@uninsubria.it

Professors