Degree course: 
Corso di Long single cycle degree (6 years) in MEDICINE AND SURGERY
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Seat of the course: 
Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 

For the fruitful attendance of teaching, the basic knowledge of Biology, Chemistry, Histology, Anatomy that the student acquired during the 2nd grade high schools is sufficient.

Final Examination: 

The verification of learning is divided into a first written test and a subsequent oral test.
The written test consists of 30 multiple choice questions, to be solved in 30 minutes: 20 questions of cyto and histology, 10 of embryology, which span all the main topics covered in each module.
Each correct answer is evaluated 1 point and each incorrect answer or not given 0 points. To pass the written test it is necessary to have correctly answered at least 20 questions and this gives the student the eligibility for admission to the oral test exclusively of the same appeal.
The result of the written test is only for admission to the oral exam and the grade will not be an average.

The oral exam includes
- reading, recognition and comment of a histological preparation with description of the microscopic field observed up to the definition of the tissue.
- Questions of the program carried out. Single final mark out of thirty.

Each test aims to verify
- the degree of depth of the topics,
- the ability to describe the structures that make up the cytoplasm and extracellular matrix of all tissues.
- Knowledge on the development of the zygote up to organogenesis.
- the ability to analyze histological preparations and discuss them knowing how to make connections between the various topics
The clarity in the expression of the concepts presented and the ability to use the appropriate terminology will be particularly appreciated.

Voto Finale

The teaching leads the student to mature the basic culture necessary to understand the structure of human tissues and organs under normal conditions, as well as the structure and development of the embryo.
These knowledge are fundamental prerequisites for understanding the contents of the subsequent teachings of Human Anatomy, Human Physiology, Human Pathology.
It is an integrated course consisting of the following modules
- Cytology and human histology (1st semester of 40 hours)
- Microscopic histology (1st semester of 10.hours))
- Embryology (1st semester of 20.hours))

At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
- describe the general organization of human eukaryotic cells
- recognize the morphological characteristics of different cells and tissues of the human body under normal conditions
- discuss the functional aspects most directly associated with the specific morphological organization
- describe the various stages of human prenatal development from the zygote (fertilization) to the embryo (embryogenesis) to the fetus (organogenesis) until birth, with reference to the related control and regulation mechanisms
- explain the basic concepts of gametogenesis and the characteristics of human reproduction from the earliest stages of embryonic development
- know how to explain or list the techniques and methodologies most commonly used in the study of histology
- comment on images of optical microscopy, transmission electron and scanning of biological tissues
- contextualize microscopic information bringing it back to a macroscopic context
- use the optical microscope,
- recognize and illustrate the basic histological stains
- express autonomy of judgment in the evaluation of histological preparations
- discuss the aforementioned topics using the appropriate scientific language

Means of investigation, most common histological techniques.
Cell membrane: structure, functions and specializations
Cytoplasmic organelles: smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi, lysosomes, phagocytosis vesicles, mitochondria, cytoskeleton and centriole: structure and function
Core: morphology and composition. DNA, RNA. Brief notes on protein synthesis. Mitosis and meiosis.

- lining and glandular epithelia
connective tissue proper
- cartilage tissue,
- bone tissue,
- blood cells
- skeletal and smooth striated muscle tissue
-nervous tissue

Fertilization, segmentation, blastocysts and nesting.
Trophoblast, placenta structure. Embryonic annexes
Embrioblast: primitive leaflets.
Delimitation of the embryo.
Ectoderma and its derivatives.
Endoderm and its derivatives.
Mesoderm and its derivatives.
Head and neck development, pharyngeal arches.
Organogenesis: Development of the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, urinary, genital, locomotor systems

The course will be structured with lectures followed by a moment, at the end of each lesson, of discussion on the topic. Histological preparations will be shown in the classroom with a microscope projector.
The lectures will be integrated by:
a) practical exercises with an optical microscope
b) tutoring activities
Specifically: a) each student will do 3 hours of guided exercises with the course teacher. This integrative activity will take place in the didactic laboratory (MTG pavilion). each student will have a microscope available to carry out slide observations. The teacher will have given indications on how to carry out the activity and will be present to provide further clarifications.
b) In order to solve any student problem, 6/8 hours of additional tutoring activities will be agreed; which consist of other teaching hours agreed with the teacher and with the assistants that serve as additional support for reviewing the most difficult topics