CHIMICA CON ESERCITAZIONI

Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Physics
Academic year when starting the degree: 
2020/2021
Year: 
1
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
2020/2021
Credits: 
8
Period: 
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
72
Requirements: 

No requirements.

Final Examination: 
Orale

The examination is based on a written test (50%) followed by an oral examination (50%) in case of positive result from the written test.

Assessment: 
Voto Finale

The Course will provide students the fundamental knowledges of chemistry and its principles, with special attention to those regarding the atomic structure, the chemical bonds, the thermodynamic and kinetics laws.

Expected results:

- fundamental knowledge about the atomic structure, the periodic properties of the elements, the chemical covalent and ionic bonds, intermolecular forces

- Fundamental knowledge of solid state materials

- How to handle quantitative aspects of a chemical reaction

- Dealing with both homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical equilibria.

- Solving chemical problems and being able to explain the laws used.

1) The atomic structure and the Periodic Table of the elements (10 hours)
Atomic and mass number. Isotopes. Energy quantization. Bohr’s atomic model for hydrogen atom. Electron wave properties and de Broglie’s equation. Heisenberg indetermination principle. Schrödinger wave equation and the quantum numbers. Electronic configuration: Pauli’s principle and Hund’s rule.
The Periodic Table of the elements: blocks, groups, periods. Periodic properties.

2) The chemical bond (10 hours)
Ionic and covalent bond. Bonds and molecules polarity. Molecules shape: VSEPR theory. Sigma- and pi-bonds. Multiple bonds. Molecular orbital theory: application to diatomic molecules of second period elements. Intermolecular forces.

3) Solid State Chemistry (4 hours): crystalline and amorphous materials; classifications of solid states materials; packing in crystalline solids; analysis of crystalline materials.

4) Mole and molar ratios (6 hours)
Pure substances (elements, compounds) and mixtures. Chemical formulas. The mole and molar mass. Percentage composition of the elements in a compound. Use of molar ratios in chemical reactions: limiting reagent and reaction yield.

5) Ideal gases (6 hours)
Ideal gases model. Avogadro’s principle. Ideal gases Laws. Ideal gases mixtures: Dalton’s and Amagat’s laws.

6) Solutions (6 hours)
Expressing concentrations of solutions. Solutions’ dilution. How to deal with solutions in a chemical reaction.

7) Chemical kinetics (4 hours)
Reaction rate and kinetic equation. Reaction order. Elementary reactions and reaction mechanisms. Brief introduction to collision theory and transition state. From kinetics to equilibrium.

8) Thermochemistry and equilibria (6 hours)
The energy and its types. First principle of thermodynamics. Internal energy. Enthalpy. Hess’s law. Entropy and the second principle of thermodynamics. Gibb’s free energy and chemical reactions spontaneity. Third principle of thermodynamics. Homogenous gaseous equilibrium. Equilibrium constant and reaction quotient. Le Chatelier’s principle. Heterogeneous equilibria.

9) Chemical equilibria in aqueous media (12 hours)
Ionic water product. Acids and bases: definitions and theories from Arrehnius, Brønsted and Lewis. Definition of acidity and basicity constants for weak acids and bases. Aqueous solutions of acids and bases: pH definition and calculation. Buffer solutions. Acid-base titrations.

10) Electrochemistry (6 hours)
Oxidation-reductions reactions (redox). Electrochemical potentials. Standard reduction potentials. Electrochemical cells: Nernst’s law. Electrolysis processes: molten salts and aqueous solutions of salts. Quantitative aspects of electrolysis: Faraday’s laws.

11) Introduction to Radiochemistry (2 hours)

1) The atomic structure and the Periodic Table of the elements (10 hours)
Atomic and mass number. Isotopes. Energy quantization. Bohr’s atomic model for hydrogen atom. Electron wave properties and de Broglie’s equation. Heisenberg indetermination principle. Schrödinger wave equation and the quantum numbers. Electronic configuration: Pauli’s principle and Hund’s rule.
The Periodic Table of the elements: blocks, groups, periods. Periodic properties.

2) The chemical bond (10 hours)
Ionic and covalent bond. Bonds and molecules polarity. Molecules shape: VSEPR theory. Sigma- and pi-bonds. Multiple bonds. Molecular orbital theory: application to diatomic molecules of second period elements. Intermolecular forces.

3) Solid State Chemistry (4 hours): crystalline and amorphous states; classifications of solid states materials; packing in crystalline solids; analysis of crystalline materials.

4) Mole and molar ratios (6 hours)
Pure substances (elements, compounds) and mixtures. Chemical formulas. The mole and molar mass. Percentage composition of the elements in a compound. Use of molar ratios in chemical reactions: limiting reagent and reaction yield.

5) Ideal gases (6 hours)
Ideal gases model. Avogadro’s principle. Ideal gases Laws. Ideal gases mixtures: Dalton’s and Amagat’s laws.

6) Solutions (6 hours)
Expressing concentrations of solutions. Solutions’ dilution. How to deal with solutions in a chemical reaction.

7) Chemical kinetics (4 hours)
Reaction rate and kinetic equation. Reaction order. Elementary reactions and reaction mechanisms. Brief introduction to collision theory and transition state. From kinetics to equilibrium.

8) Thermochemistry and equilibria (6 hours)
The energy and its types. First principle of thermodynamics. Internal energy. Enthalpy. Hess’s law. Entropy and the second principle of thermodynamics. Gibb’s free energy and chemical reactions spontaneity. Third principle of thermodynamics. Homogenous gaseous equilibrium. Equilibrium constant and reaction quotient. Le Chatelier’s principle. Heterogeneous equilibria.

9) Chemical equilibria in aqueous media (12 hours)
Ionic water product. Acids and bases: definitions and theories from Arrehnius, Brønsted and Lewis. Definition of acidity and basicity constants for weak acids and bases. Aqueous solutions of acids and bases: pH definition and calculation. Buffer solutions. Acid-base titrations.

10) Electrochemistry (6 hours)
Oxidation-reductions reactions (redox). Electrochemical potentials. Standard reduction potentials. Electrochemical cells: Nernst’s law. Electrolysis processes: molten salts and aqueous solutions of salts. Quantitative aspects of electrolysis: Faraday’s laws.

11) Introduction to Radiochemistry (2 hours)

PowerPoint slides with lectures and excercises will be available to students through e-learning website

Recommended book:
P. Atkins, L. Jones, “Fondamenti di Chimica Generale”, Zanichelli.

The Course (72 hours) will be held in the second semester.
The Cours is based on classroom lectures (with PowerPoint presentation) and exercises.

Office hours: all weekdays in the teacher's office (Via Valleggio 9, Como, III piano edificio "cubo"), after e-mail appointment: federica.bertolotti@uninsubria.it