Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOTECHNOLOGY
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (48 hours), Seminar (4 hours)

There are no pre-requisites for the course of Immunology.

Final Examination: 

The exam will consist of an oral exam, two questions, in which the student will be asked to demonstrate the knowledge about the program he is doing. The purpose of the exam is to verify the level of achievement of the training objectives stated previously; to assess the student's level of knowledge about the functioning of the various immune system cells, its molecules as well as various immune mediated pathologies, and immune system modulation processes. The exam results will be in thirty points, and to pass the exam, the student must score at least 18 (eighteen).
In particular, the exam is aimed at assessing the level and quality of learning that the student has achieved, in particular to know:
1. to discuss critically on the topic, being able to connect the different parts of the matter, and demonstrating that they have acquired basic knowledge of the innate and adaptive immune system, on understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of sensitization and immune activation in response to the recognition of a pathogen and mechanisms of interaction and cooperation between innate and adaptive immune systems in the response to pathogens (it will weigh 50% for the final vote formulation);
2. to describe in a clear and in-depth way the dynamics of acquired immunity, immunological memory, immunity of mucous membranes, processes of immune reactions in HIV infection, allergies, autoimmunity, response to tumors and features of immunodeficiencies (will weigh 50% for the formulation of the final grade).

Voto Finale

The course provides the principles of innate and acquired immunity, their dynamics and their functioning in health and illness.
The course will give ample space for in-depth studies aimed at acquiring basic laboratory technical knowledge and cellular and molecular biotechnological application methodologies in the immunological and biomedical field.

At the end of the course, the student must demonstrate that he knows:
1) to explain the functioning of the various immune cell types, their interactions and the fundamental molecules of the immune system;
2) to describe the various mechanisms of resistance to the immune system that pathogenic microorganisms implement and the characteristics of immune mediated pathologies such as hypersensitivity and autoimmunity, as well as modulation of immune system processes in transplants, vaccines, and some innovative anti-cancer immunotherapies;
3) to discuss critically and concisely the topics of interest, also implementing insights independently in the application aspects of this science, in particular in the biotechnological field;
4) to argue theoretical and practical / application aspects in relation to the dynamics and collaboration between cells and molecules of the innate and acquired immune compartment in order to solve specific problems of immunology and related disciplines.

The front lessons will address the following topics:
General characteristics of the immune system. Acute inflammatory reaction, proinflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins.
Antigen recognition by T lymphocytes and lymphocytes B. Formation of antigen receptors on lymphocytes. Presentation of the antigen to T lymphocytes. The Major Histocompatibility Complex and its functions.
The response of T cells. The humoral immune response. Various types and functions of antibodies. Monoclonal antibody techniques, basic techniques and biotechnology cellular and molecular methodologies in Immunology. Dynamics of acquired immunity.
The immune response during an infection. Immune memory. Deficiencies of host defense mechanisms. Evasion and subversion of immune defenses. Some examples of immune deficiency diseases and HIV.
Allergies and allergic diseases. Autoimmunity. Responses to alloantigens and transplant rejection.
The use of the immune response against tumors. Combating infectious diseases with vaccinations.

Immunology by Vera Del Gobbo (PICCIN, 4th Edition, 2013).
Immunologia – Un percorso breve (edi ermes edizione, 2018)
Immunology by Abbas, Lichtman and Pillai (Elsevier 7° Edition, 2012).
Janeway Immunobiology (PICCIN, 8th Edition, 2014).
Slide lessons: downloadable from the University's E-learning site.


The course consists of 48 hours of frontal lessons (6 CFUs). These lessons will be supported by power point slides projection.

The lecturer is available for further information or clarification on topics discussed for individual students or groups of students. He will receive students, after making an appointment by e-mail, at the Immunology and General Pathology Laboratory (1st floor), Biomedical Pole, former Colonia Agricola, via Monte Generoso 71 (int. 3), Varese.