Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOTECHNOLOGY
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (40 hours), Laboratory (12 hours)

There are no prerequisites

Final Examination: 

Oral test. The task of the oral exam is that of verify the comprehension of the course contents, evaluating:
1. the level of knowledge of the addressed topics
2. the ability to establish relevant links between the different aspects covered
3. the ability to organize speech coherently and clearly.
The student will also be asked to discuss what has been achieved in the practical laboratory experiences, with a main focus on the techniques used.

Grades are given on the basis of 30 points

Voto Finale

The intent of the course is to build on background knowledge by discussing plant transformation technologies and their applications, including breeding of healthy plants. Moreover, the course will discuss some issues of the production of genetically modified organisms.

By the end of this course, the student will be able to:
1. discuss various protocols of plant cell, tissue and organ culture and the scientific principles underlying these protocols
2. construct suitable vectors for stable (nucleus and chloroplast) and transient transformation
3. Explain various protocols for plant gene transfer technology (stable and transient transformation)
4. Describe the underlying principles of each step of these protocols
5. Describe the methods and principals for the validation of transgene integration into plant genome
6. discuss the opportunities offered by transformation techniques for plant breeding
7. use appropriate scientific language

1. In vitro plant tissue culture techniques
Totipotency and plasticity of plant cells. Dedifferentiation, morphogenesis (organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis).
The aseptic cultures. Synchronization and growth curves. Micropropagation. Somatic hybridization. Protoplasts. Somaclonal variation
2. Plant nuclear stable transformation
Agrobacterium tumefaciens: the infection mechanism, the Ti plasmid, the T-DNA transfer mechanism. The gene construct. Marker genes and marker free plants. Gene transformation protocols mediated by A. tumefaciens.
Other plant transformation techniques: biolistics, electroporation, microinjection. Validation of transgene integration.
3. Chloroplast transformation
Vectors for chloroplast transformation Transformation protocols.
4. Transgenesis, cisgenesis, genome silencing in the plant field
5. Agriculture. present and future challenges
The domestication of plants. The green revolution. Opportunities and issues of modern biotechnology in the vegetable field
6. Transformation techniques for plant breeding: resistance to phytopathogens
7. Examples of applications of plant biotechnology in basic research.

- Rosa Rao e Antonietta Leone, Biotecnologie e genomica delle piante. Idelson-Gnocchi, 2014
- Altman A., Hasegawa P.M. Plant Biotechnology and Agriculture 2012 Academic Press
- Trigiano, Gray, 2010 Plant Tissue Culture, Development and Biotechnology CRC

All the material provided by the teacher can be downloaded from the University's e-learning site


Lectures with PowerPoint presentation. Students are encouraged to actively participate to the lessons.The course includes laboratory work in order to provide student with the opportunity to apply and investigate theoretical and conceptual knowledge. For each proposed experiment, the student will receive a detailed protocol allowing to perform the experience independently, although always under the guidance of the teacher.
Two formative assessment tests (no point value)will be used to help students identify their strengths and weaknesses and target areas that need work.
Students (also working in small groups) will be asked to identify a topic, generate a list of relevant articles, prepare abstracts based on papers read, and, finally, prepare a “state-of-the-art” PPT presentation on the topic.

Students can email the teacher using the University account for clarifying their troubles and doubts: