Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOTECHNOLOGY
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (48 hours)

To fully understand the topics addressed in the present course, students should possess basic notions of physiology and biochemistry

Final Examination: 

A written test will be administered at the end of the course, lasting two hours and based on 2 open questions and 6 multiple choice questions, which will cover the entire program. The accuracy and completeness of the information presented in response to the open questions will weigh 80% on the final evaluation, which will be expressed out of thirty. The test is considered passed with a score of at least 18/30. The criteria for evaluating the essay are the degree of in-depth study of the subject matter of the question, the clarity of the concepts exposed and the properties of the terminology used. The demonstration of critical ability, connection and elaboration of the acquired knowledge allows to reach the maximum scores (and possibly honors).

Voto Finale

Obiettivi Formativi
The main objective of the course is to provide basic knowledge for the study of drugs, that is molecules with therapeutic action, with particular attention to the understanding of the mechanisms of action and kinetics that regulate their presence in the body. Specifically, these topics will be addressed during the course: the different phases of the preclinical and clinical development of new drugs; the processes that drugs undergo once they enter the body (i.e. principles of pharmacokinetics); and drug interactions with their molecular targets (i.e. principles of pharmacodynamics). The course will contribute to acquire knowledge on biological aspects relating to human health.
Risultati di Apprendimento Attesi
On successful completion of the course, students will be able to:
- explain the path leading to drug development (basic research, pre-clinical trials and clinical studies)
- describe the processes governing pharmacokinetics and indicate which characteristics of the drug molecules are influenced and influence these processes;
- identify the main cellular and molecular targets of drugs and discuss the effects of their modulation at the level of cells, tissues and the whole organism
- compare classic and innovative drugs

- Definition of drug, brief history of pharmacology. Drug development. Preclinical development of medications and clinical studies.
- Pharmacokinetics. Routes of drug administration and absorption. Distribution of drugs. The metabolism and elimination of drugs
- General properties of receptors. Characteristics of the drug-receptor interaction. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of drug responses: analysis of dose / response curves. Relationship between drug receptor interaction and response: occupation theory and subsequent modifications. Receptor binding studies.
- The main receptor classes. Drugs and channel receptors. Drugs and G protein-coupled receptors. Drugs and tyrosine kinase receptors. Drugs and intracellular receptors. Regulatory mechanisms of receptor responses.
- Proteins as drug targets. Drugs and enzymes. Drugs and transport systems. Drugs and ion channels.
- Innovative drugs. Nucleic acids as drug targets and as drugs. Biological drugs. Cellular therapies

F. Clementi e G. Fumagalli “Farmacologia generale e molecolare” V edizione Edra.
Slide presentations and videos used during lectures will be available on the e-learning website


The teaching activity includes lectures: the discussion of the different topics will be carried out through PowerPoint presentations. On some occasions, videos will also be used to facilitate understanding of the topics covered. Both types of material will be made available on the university's e-learning platform.

Contact information:
The teacher receives students by appointment requested by email or before/after class (while teaching module is ongoing)