CHIMICA GENERALE E ORGANICA - MOD.CHIMICA GENERALE

Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in ENVIRONMENTAL AND NATURAL SCIENCES
Academic year when starting the degree: 
2020/2021
Year: 
1
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
2020/2021
Course type: 
Basic compulsory subjects
Credits: 
6
Period: 
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
48
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (48 hours)
Requirements: 

Fundamental knowledges of maths and physics from high school.

The examination is based on a written test (of about 3 hours) based on both on questions on the arguments of the lectures and on resolution of stoichiometry exercises.

The final grade will be assigned as the average between the grades obtained from general chemistry and organic chemistry exams.

Assessment: 
Voto Finale

The Course will provide students the fundamental knowledges of chemistry and its principles, with special attention to those regarding the atomic structure, the chemical bonds, the thermodynamic and kinetics laws.

Expected results:

- fundamental knowledge about the atomic structure, the periodic properties of the elements, the chemical covalent and ionic bonds, intermolecular forces
- How to handle quantitative aspects of a chemical reaction

- Dealing with both homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical equilibria.

- Solving chemical problems and being able to explain the laws used.

1) The atomic structure and the Periodic Table of the elements (10 hours)
Atomic and mass number. Isotopes. Energy quantization. Bohr’s atomic model for hydrogen atom. Electron wave properties and de Broglie’s equation. Heisenberg indetermination principle. Schrödinger wave equation and the quantum numbers. Electronic configuration: Pauli’s principle and Hund’s rule.
The Periodic Table of the elements: blocks, groups, periods. Periodic properties.

2) The chemical bond (10 hours)
Ionic and covalent bond. Bonds and molecules polarity. Molecules shape: VSEPR theory. Sigma- and pi-bonds. Multiple bonds. Molecular orbital theory: application to diatomic molecules of second period elements. Intermolecular forces.

3) Mole and molar ratios (2 hours)
Pure substances (elements, compounds) and mixtures. Chemical formulas. The mole and molar mass.

4) Ideal gases (2 hours)
Ideal gases model. Avogadro’s principle. Ideal gases Laws.

5) Solutions (4 hours)
Expressing concentrations of solutions. Solutions’ dilution. How to deal with solutions in a chemical reaction.

6) Chemical kinetics (4 hours)
Reaction rate and kinetic equation. Reaction order. Elementary reactions and reaction mechanisms. Brief introduction to collision theory and transition state. From kinetics to equilibrium.

7) Thermochemistry and equilibria (4 hours)
The energy and its types. First principle of thermodynamics. Internal energy. Enthalpy. Hess’s law. Entropy and the second principle of thermodynamics. Gibb’s free energy and chemical reactions spontaneity. Third principle of thermodynamics. Homogenous gaseous equilibrium. Equilibrium constant and reaction quotient. Le Chatelier’s principle. Heterogeneous equilibria.

8) Chemical equilibria in aqueous media (6 hours)
Ionic water product. Acids and bases: definitions and theories from Arrehnius, Brønsted and Lewis. Definition of acidity and basicity constants for weak acids and bases. Aqueous solutions of acids and bases: pH definition and calculation. Buffer solutions.

9) Electrochemistry (4 hours)
Oxidation-reductions reactions (redox). Electrochemical potentials. Standard reduction potentials. Electrochemical cells: Nernst’s law. Electrolysis processes: molten salts and aqueous solutions of salts. Quantitative aspects of electrolysis: Faraday’s laws.

10) Introduction to Radiochemistry (2 hours)

1) The atomic structure and the Periodic Table of the elements (10 hours)
Atomic and mass number. Isotopes. Energy quantization. Bohr’s atomic model for hydrogen atom. Electron wave properties and de Broglie’s equation. Heisenberg indetermination principle. Schrödinger wave equation and the quantum numbers. Electronic configuration: Pauli’s principle and Hund’s rule.
The Periodic Table of the elements: blocks, groups, periods. Periodic properties.

2) The chemical bond (10 hours)
Ionic and covalent bond. Bonds and molecules polarity. Molecules shape: VSEPR theory. Sigma- and pi-bonds. Multiple bonds. Molecular orbital theory: application to diatomic molecules of second period elements. Intermolecular forces.

3) Mole and molar ratios (2 hours)
Pure substances (elements, compounds) and mixtures. Chemical formulas. The mole and molar mass.

4) Ideal gases (2 hours)
Ideal gases model. Avogadro’s principle. Ideal gases Laws.

5) Solutions (4 hours)
Expressing concentrations of solutions. Solutions’ dilution. How to deal with solutions in a chemical reaction.

6) Chemical kinetics (4 hours)
Reaction rate and kinetic equation. Reaction order. Elementary reactions and reaction mechanisms. Brief introduction to collision theory and transition state. From kinetics to equilibrium.

7) Thermochemistry and equilibria (4 hours)
The energy and its types. First principle of thermodynamics. Internal energy. Enthalpy. Hess’s law. Entropy and the second principle of thermodynamics. Gibb’s free energy and chemical reactions spontaneity. Third principle of thermodynamics. Homogenous gaseous equilibrium. Equilibrium constant and reaction quotient. Le Chatelier’s principle. Heterogeneous equilibria.

8) Chemical equilibria in aqueous media (6 hours)
Ionic water product. Acids and bases: definitions and theories from Arrehnius, Brønsted and Lewis. Definition of acidity and basicity constants for weak acids and bases. Aqueous solutions of acids and bases: pH definition and calculation. Buffer solutions.

9) Electrochemistry (4 hours)
Oxidation-reductions reactions (redox). Electrochemical potentials. Standard reduction potentials. Electrochemical cells: Nernst’s law. Electrolysis processes: molten salts and aqueous solutions of salts. Quantitative aspects of electrolysis: Faraday’s laws.

10) Introduction to Radiochemistry (2 hours)

PowerPoint slides (with lectures and exercises) will be available to students through e-learning website.

Recommended book:
P. Atkins, L. Jones, “Fondamenti di Chimica Generale”, Zanichelli.

The Course of 48 hours is based on classroom lectures (with PowerPoint presentation) and exercises.

Office hours: all weekdays in the teacher's office (Via Valleggio 9, Como, III piano edificio "cubo"), after e-mail appointment: federica.bertolotti@uninsubria.it