HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 2

Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Movement science
Academyc year when starting the degree: 
2019/2020
Year: 
2
Academyc year when helding the course: 
2020/2021
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
Credits: 
4
Period: 
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
40
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (40 hours)
Requirements: 

To be admitted to the final exam of Human Physiology it is necessary to possess a positive evaluation of the exam of Human Anatomy

Final Examination: 
Orale

The assessment of the achievement of the objectives set by the Course provides for a final exam on all topics included in the program.
The Physiology exam consists of a test performed by computer support (PC) comprising 20 multiple choice questions, to be answered in a time of 25 minutes. The evaluation will be 1.65 points for each correct answer and 0 points for each wrong or missing answer. You pass the exam with a score equal to or greater than 18/30.

Assessment: 
Voto Finale

Physiology studies the human vital functions and analyses he mechanisms through which the organism realizes ad maintains its internal homeostasis at molecular, cellular and tissue level in spite of the modification of the surrounding environment.
The objective of the Course Human Physiology 1 will be to provide graduates with all the information necessary to understand, from a biophysical-quantitative point of view, the functioning of the various organs and systems of the body under normal conditions and their control by the nervous system central and autonomous and endocrine system.
At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. describe the fundamental functional parameters that characterize the physiological conditions of cells, tissues and organs;
2. explain how cells and tissues work
3. use biophysical-quantitative tools (equations, graphs) to describe and analyze the physiological processes involved;
4. describe the correlations between structure, biophysical behavior and function of organs and systems.
5. describe the mechanisms underlying the coordinated and interactive functioning of several organs and systems
6. analyze the phenomena that lead to possible modifications of the quantitative and functional parameters as the organic conditions vary
7. discuss the topics dealt with clearly and using the appropriate technical language.
8. explain how the changes in functional balance found in physiological conditions lead to the onset of pathophysiological conditions of clinical interest for cells, tissues and organs.

The Course will deal with the physiology and pathology of the following systems:
Skeletal muscle and locomotion.
Cardiac muscle.
Vascular systemic circulation and lymphatic system.
Pulmonary and coronary circulation. Control of cardiovascular function.
Respiratory system, gas exchanges and transport.
Nervous and chemical control of respiratory function.
Renal system and regulation of volume and osmoticity in extracellular body fluids.
Acid-base equilibrium.
Metabolism.
Thermoregulation.
Digestive system.
Endocrine system.

Hemodynamics. Speed, section and average pressure in the various sections. Mechanical characteristics of the vessels. Laplace's law. Bernoulli's law. Laminar and turbulent motion. Sphygmic wave. Pressure in the districts of the large and small circle. Capillary exchange of liquid and solutes. Lymphatic system. Nervous and humoral regulation of blood pressure. Pulmonary circle. Coronary circle.
Rest and action potential of myocardial cells. ECG. Receptors, afferent pathways, cardio-regulating center, efferent pathways. Ventricular pressure and volume during the cardiac cycle. Cardiac throw. Cardiac work.
Atmospheric air composition and partial gas pressures. Static lung volumes. Pulmonary and alveolar ventilation. Pressure-volume diagram of the lung and chest wall. Intrapleural depression. Respiratory work. O2 consumption and CO2 production. Respiratory quotient. Alveolar air equation. Alveolus-capillary diffusion of respiratory gases. Transport of O2 and CO2 in the blood. Blood dissociation curves for O2 and CO2 Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Nervous regulation of ventilation.
Ionic volume and composition of the intracellular and extracellular compartments. Glomerular filtration. Renal clearance. Maximum tubular load. Absorption of water, Na +, Cl-, bicarbonates, amino acids, glucose, urea. Secretion of H + and organic substances. Henle loop. Osmoticity of the tubular and interstitial peritubular fluid in the various areas of the loop. Function of the vasa recta.
Buffer systems of the organism. Isoidic principle. Fixed and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis Respiratory and renal regulation of the pH of body fluids.
Energy sources: alactacid, glycolytic and aerobic lactacid mechanism. Caloric value of food and calorie equivalent of O2. Oxygen debt. Basal metabolism, rest and during exercise.
Skeletal muscle function. Isometric, isotonic and isovelocity contraction. Single shock, clone, tetanus. Force-length diagram. Force-speed contraction diagram
General characteristics of the digestive tract. Salivary, gastric, hepatic and pancreatic secretions. Peristaltic movements and their regulation. Gastrointestinal hormones. Digestion and absorption. Structure, mechanism of functioning and control of hormones.
Hormonal function of: anterior, posterior and intermediate pituitary; medullary and cortical of the adrenal glands; thyroid, parathyroid, endocrine pancreas, intestinal wall, gonads

AA.VV. – FISIOLOGIA UMANA – a cura di F.Grassi, D.Negrini, C.A. Porro - Poletto Editore, Milano
AA.VV. – FISIOLOGIA MEDICA - a cura di F. Conti - Casa Editrice Edi-Ermes, Milano
AA.VV - FISIOLOGIA UMANA APPLICATA ALL’ATTIVITÀ FISICA. A cura di G.D’Antona - Poletto Editore, Milano

The teaching takes place through lectures conducted by the teacher with the help of IT support materials. The student will be guided to the understanding of physiological processes through the presentation of images and general description schemes, accompanied by insights and explanations of biophysical-quantitative meaning made using graphs, equations and numerical examples that lead to the understanding of the functioning mechanisms of cells, tissues and organs. Students will be invited to speak during the lesson for any questions, further explanations and / or insights.

The teacher receives students by appointment fixed by e-mail address: daniela.negrini@uninsubria.it

Professors

Borrowers