Degree course: 
Corso di Long single cycle degree (6 years) in MEDICINE AND SURGERY
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (48 hours), Exercise (24 hours)

To take the General Pathology exam you must have passed the Biology and Genetics and Physiology exams.

Final Examination: 

The exam will consist of an oral exam, two questions, in which the student will be asked to demonstrate the knowledge about the program he is doing. The purpose of the exam is to verify the level of achievement of the training objectives stated previously. The exam results will be in thirty points, and to pass the exam, the student must score at least 18 (eighteen).

Voto Finale

General Pathology is a multidisciplinary science of medicine that studies the etiology and pathogenesis of diseases and in particular the reactivity of the organism and in cases where such reactivity is not adequate or insufficient, the mechanisms that determine the persistence of the pathological condition.
The course therefore aims to provide knowledge of the causes and mechanisms of the diseases and the alterations that derive from them at a tissue, cellular and molecular level.
This course represents a fundamental teaching for Medicine and Surgery as it provides a set of knowledge that connects the biological and clinical-surgical disciplines.

At the end of the course, the student must demonstrate that he knows:
1) explain the functioning of cellular responses to stress and pathological stimuli; cellular adaptations to stress; of necrosis; apoptosis; of autophagy and cellular aging;
2) describe the different cellular and tissue mechanisms implemented during acute inflammation, chronic inflammation, tissue repair, cell regeneration and angiogenesis;
3) know how to illustrate and explain the various pathologies of the immune system: hypersensitivity reactions, autoimmunity, immunodeficiencies, and also some zoonoses, coronavirus and Covid-19 infection, amyloidosis and spongiform encephalopathies;
4) critically discussing the characteristics of benign and malignant tumors; of the metastatic process; carcinogenesis and the molecular basis of cancer;
5) explain the clinical and molecular aspects of neoplasms; of the host's defenses against tumors: anti-tumor immunity or immunosurveillance; the main mechanisms of tumor evasion from immune recognition; possible biological therapies against cancer;
6) to argue functional aspects of the dynamics of genetic diseases and of the genetic alterations that cause human diseases; mutations; and epigenetic changes;
7) know how to illustrate and explain some issues of environmental and nutritional pathologies: such as the effects of climate change on health; the toxicity of chemical and physical agents; the effects of tobacco, alcohol; vitamin deficiency; and the correlations between diet and systemic diseases; and between diet and cancer.

The lectures will address the following topics:
Cell damage, death and adaptation: Cellular responses to stress and pathological stimuli; cellular adaptations to stress; free radicals of oxygen and oxidative stress; cell damage and cell death; cell damage mechanisms; necrosis; apoptosis or programmed cell death, etiology and mechanisms; autophagy; cellular aging.
Inflammation and tissue repair: acute inflammation; vascular and cellular events; leukocyte recruitment and activation; inflammation mediators; cellular mediators, cytokines and chemokines; plasma protein mediators: the quinine and coagulation system and notes on the complement system; chronic inflammation; cells and mediators involved; granulomatous inflammation; systemic effects of inflammation; septic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation; anaphylactic shock; tissue repair; cell and tissue regeneration; stamina cells; the extracellular matrix; healing; angiogenesis, fibrosis.
Immune system disorders: hypersensitivity reactions and immune-mediated damage mechanism; autoimmunity; etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms; transplant rejection; effector mechanisms; methods to increase the survival of transplants; hematopoietic stem transplant; immunodeficiency diseases; zoonoses; coronavirus and Covid-19 infection; amyloidosis or beta-fibrillosis; prion proteins and spongiform encephalopathies.
Neoplasms: nomenclature; characteristics of benign and malignant tumors; metastases; epidemiology; inheritance; carcinogenesis and molecular basis of cancer; genetic lesions in tumors; carcinogenesis and multistep process; distinctive features of tumors; cancer etiology and carcinogens; chemical, radiation, virus and Helicobatcer pylori carcinogenesis; clinical aspects of neoplasms; host defenses against tumors: anti-tumor immunity or immunosurveillance; mechanisms of tumor evasion from immune recognition; humoral and cellular responses against cancer; possible biological therapies against cancer.
Genetic diseases: genetic alterations that cause human diseases; mutations; epigenetic changes; micro RNA; Mendelian diseases and monogenic defects and some examples; outline of complex multigenic diseases; introduction to cytogenetic diseases.
Environmental and nutritional pathologies: effects of climate change on health; toxicity of chemical and physical agents; effects of tobacco; alcohol effects; harm from drugs and substances of abuse; malnutrition; anorexia nervosa and bulimia; vitamin deficiency; obesity; diet and systemic diseases; diet and cancer.

Robbins - Fundamentals of Pathology and Pathophysiology. EDRA Editore, 9th edition, 2018. Robbins and Cotran - The pathological basis of diseases, ELSEVIER Editore, 8th or 9th Edition.

The course consists of 48 hours of frontal lessons (6 CFU). These lessons will be supported by power point slides projection.

The lecturer is available for further information or clarification on topics discussed for individual students or groups of students. He will receive students, after making an appointment by e-mail, at the Immunology and General Pathology Laboratory (1st floor), Biomedical Pole, former Colonia Agricola, via Monte Generoso 71 (int. 3), Varese.