Degree course: 
Corso di Long single cycle degree (6 years) in School of Dentistry
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
Seat of the course: 
Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (36 hours)

Anatomy, histology, basic biology, microbiology, chemistry, biochemistry and physiology.

Final Examination: 

The student must pass an oral exam that concerns questions related to the theoretical base and practice of human physiopathology; knowledge acquisition and understanding (40%) and application of the knowledge acquired (30%), judgment autonomy (10%), communication skills (10%) and learning ability (10%).

Voto Finale

The General Pathology course provides the students with the fundamentals of modern cellular and molecular pathology. The course deals with the investigation of those pathological mechanisms common to all tissue-cell pathology; etiology, pathogenesis, morphologic changes, functional derangements and clinical significance. Attention is paid to the processes of cellular adaptation, cell death, cellular accumulation, tissue repair, inflammation, immunology and immunopathology, and neoplasia. This course takes the basic science that the student has learned in previous courses to clinical concepts.

Etiology of disease; acquired versus inherited disorders, pathogenesis, morphological changes and functional alterations.
Cellular responses to stress and noxious insults.
Cell injury and cell death necrosis and apoptosis.
Intracellular accumulations and calcifications.
Tissue renewal, regeneration and repair.
Acute and chronic inflammation.
Innate immune response
Acquired immunity
Cell proliferation and tissue growth
Hemodynamic disorders, thromboembolic disease, and shock
General concepts of physiopathology of the oral cavity
General concepts of Clinical Pathology

- Etiology, pathogenesis, morphological changes and functional alterations
- extrinsic causes, examples and mechanisms of action of physical and chemical agents as well as poisons and nutritional factors
- Intrinsic causes, inheritance and examples of genetic diseases.
- causes of cell damage, cellular adaptation, growth and differentiation; hypertrophy; hyperplasia; metaplasia, atrophy
- Cell death: necrosis and apoptosis, mechanism of cell death
- Healing and repair of injuries, Scar Formation and Fibrosis (inflammation, angiogenesis, migration and proliferation of fibroblasts, scar formation connective tissue remodeling).
- Immunity and the immune system
- The inflammatory response: acute inflammation, chronic inflammation, inflammation associated pathologies, the innate immune response, cellular and chemical defense barriers
- Acquired immunity: lymphoid organs, cellular and chemical mediators, the humoral response and immunoglobulin classes, cell mediated responses, specificity, diversity and memory in the immune response, the major histocompatibility complex MHC/HLA, vaccines, active and passive immunity, acquired and congenital immuno-deficiencies.
- Immunopathology: hypersensitivities, general concepts of organ specific and systemic autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection and control.
- Cancer: Cell cycle control, nomenclature and classes of cancers, benign and malignant tumors, physical, chemical and viral carcinogenesis, genetics and cancer, oncogenes and oncosuppressors, definition and epidemiological evidence for multi-stage carcinogenesis, metastasis.
- General concepts of physiopathology of the oral cavity: Squamous cell carcinoma and leukoplakia.
- General concepts of Clinical Pathology, enzymes, etc.

Kumar, Abbas, Aster – “Robbins and Cotran – The Pathologic Basis of Disease” Elsevier.
McCance and Huether – “Pathophysiology: The basis for disease in adults and Children” Mosby (Elsevier).

The course objectives will be achieved through frontal lessons for a total of 36 hours. The attendance of the lessons is obligatory.

The professor will receive students in his office (Via Monte Generoso 71, “Ex Cascina”) after making an appointment by e-mail.