Degree course: 
Corso di Second cycle degree in BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (48 hours)

Histology, basic biology, microbiology, chemistry, biochemistry, physiology, immunology.

Final Examination: 

The student must pass an oral exam that concerns questions related to the theory of general pathology; knowledge acquisition and understanding (40%) and application of the knowledge acquired (30%), making judgments (20%), communication skills (10%) and learning ability (20%).

Voto Finale

The Pathology course provides the students with the fundamentals of modern cellular and molecular pathology and will learn the basic principles of and the mechanisms of systemic and organ pathology. This course is intended to the understanding of the general principles, terminology, diagnostic procedures, and basic concepts of pathology. The course deals with the investigation of those pathological mechanisms common to all tissue: cell pathology; etiology, pathogenesis, morphologic changes, functional derangements and clinical significance. Attention is paid to the processes of cellular adaptation, cell death, cellular accumulation, tissue repair, inflammation, immunopathology, and neoplasia. It enables the students to understand how and why diseases develop, clinical manifestations appear, what the underlying mechanisms. This course is intended to the understanding of the general principles, terminology, diagnostic procedures, and basic concepts of pathology and will introduce to the study of the structural, biochemical, and functional changes in cells, tissues, and organs that underlie disease and the various pathological processes and their importance in the basis of human disease will be studied. At the end of the course the student will be able to understand the pathologic bases of common human health alterations and associated clinical manifestations and elucidate the pathophysiological principles underlying the pathogenesis and therefore treatment of the disease.

Etiology of disease; acquired versus inherited disorders,
Cellular responses to stress and noxious insults.
Cell injury and cell death necrosis and apoptosis.
Intracellular accumulations and calcifications.
Tissue renewal, regeneration and repair.
Acute and chronic inflammation.
Cell proliferation and tissue growth
Vascular systems
Hemodynamic disorders, thromboembolic disease, and shock

Etiology, pathogenesis, morphological changes and functional alterations
Extrinsic causes, examples and mechanisms of action of physical and chemical agents as well as poisons and nutritional factors
Intrinsic causes, inheritance and examples of genetic diseases.
Causes of cell damage, cellular adaptation, growth and differentiation; hypertrophy; hyperplasia; metaplasia, atrophy, dysplasia, cellular aging and senescence, autophagy. Intracellular accumulations: lipids, proteins, hyaline change, glycogen, pigments. Pathological calcifications, dystrophic and metastatic calcifications
Cell death: necrosis and apoptosis, mechanisms of cell death
Healing and repair of injuries, scar formation and fibrosis (inflammation, angiogenesis, migration and proliferation of fibroblasts, scar formation connective tissue remodeling).
The inflammatory response: acute inflammation, chronic inflammation, inflammation associated pathologies, the innate immune response
Cancer: Cell cycle control, nomenclature and classes of cancers, benign and malignant tumors, physical, chemical and viral carcinogenesis, genetics and cancer, oncogenes and oncosuppressors, definition and epidemiological evidence for multi-stage carcinogenesis, metastasis.
Vascular systems: Causes and mediators of pathologies of hematopoiesis and angiogenesis
Hemostasis and hemodynamic disorders: edema, hyperemia and congestion, hemorrhage, hemorrhagic syndromes, disseminated intravascular coagulation, thrombosis, thromboembolic disease, embolism, infarction, shock

Kumar, Abbas, Aster – “Robbins and Cotran – The Pathologic Basis of Disease” Elsevier.
McCance and Huether – “Pathophysiology: The basis for disease in adults and Children” Mosby (Elsevier).


The course objectives will be achieved through frontal lessons for a total of 48 hours. Given the vast area that this course covers, the attendance of the lessons is highly recommended.

The professor will receive students in his office (Via Monte Generoso 71, “Ex Cascina”) after making an appointment by e-mail.