General and inorganic Chemistry

Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Academyc year when starting the degree: 
2019/2020
Year: 
1
Academyc year when helding the course: 
2019/2020
Partizione: 
Cognomi M-Z
Course type: 
Basic compulsory subjects
Credits: 
8
Period: 
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
70
Requirements: 

Elementary knowledge of mathematics and physics is required, as provided during high school years.

Final Examination: 
Orale

The examination consists of a written test based on both open questions related to theory topics and the resolution of stoichiometry problems. Each question will be associated to a score.
The questions related to the topics of theory are aimed at ascertaining the level of knowledge and the ability to understand the topics, as well as the ability to use the appropriate scientific terminology and logical organization of the discussion.
The resolution of stoichiometry problems is aimed at verifying the ability to correctly apply theoretical knowledge to numerical chemical problems and to verify the logical-deductive capabilities acquired.
The exam is considered passed with a grade ≥ 18/30.

Assessment: 
Voto Finale

The course provides the fundamental information for understanding the relationship between macroscopic properties of matter, the structure of atoms and molecules and their physical properties; it also familiarize the student with the chemical jargon and the scientific methodology to study chemical phenomena. The student will acquire useful criteria to predict if substances may react restructuring chemical bonds, the way in which this happens from the associate kinetics, and the energy exchanges that derive from it. The behavior of chemical systems in aqueous solution will also be described. Practical exercises are employed to further strengthen understanding and provide the tools for a quantitative treatment of chemical reactions and related phenomena.

Satisfactorily completing the course, the student would have acquired the tools necessary to handle the fundamental concepts of General Chemistry needed to tackle the study of Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry, and, more generally, any subject in the Degree course that hinge on chemical knowledge or the interpretation of biological phenomena from the chemistry view point. He would be able to show multidisciplinary integration skills and ability to use the correct scientific terminology.

Lessons (52 h)
Atoms, molecules and ions (6 hours)
Elemental substances, mixtures and compounds. Dalton's atomic theory, laws of chemical combinations. Mendeleev's periodic table. Atoms, chemical elements and isotopes. The modern periodic table. Molecules, compounds and molecular formulas. Molecular mass, formula weight. Avogadro number and concept of mole. Nomenclature.
Constitution and properties of matter (14 hours)
Atomic structure and outline of quantum mechanics: photoelectric effect, De Broglie relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, introduction to the Schrödinger equation. Quantum numbers and atomic orbitals. Electronic structure and properties of atoms: Pauli's principle, Hund's rule and "aufbau prinzip". Periodic properties of the elements. Ionic, covalent and metallic bond. Symbols and structure by Lewis. Rule of the octet. Resonance. Molecular geometry according to VSEPR. Valence bond theory. Hybridization and steric number. Pauling electronegativity and molecule polarity. Molecular orbitals theory. Interactions between molecules. Hydrogen bond. Weak intermolecular forces.
Physical State of matter (6 hours)
Properties of gases. Ideal gas laws. Equation of state of ideal gases. Gas mixtures and partial pressures. Non ideal gases. Properties of liquids. State transition and phase equilibria. Vapor pressure. Surface tension. Viscosity. Qualitative description of water and carbon dioxide state diagrams. Dissolution process and types of solvents most commonly used. Principles of solubility. Roult's law. Colligative properties.Ionic, covalent, molecular and metallic solids. Crystal lattices.
Control of chemical reactions (10 hours)
First law of thermodynamics. General concepts of thermochemistry and energy in chemical reactions. Enthalpy function and Hess law function. Enthalpy of formation, reaction and combustion. Second and third principle of thermodynamics: entropy state function and Gibbs free energy state function. Spontaneity of a chemical reaction. Thermodynamic description of the phase transition.
Chemical Kinetics. Speed of a chemical reaction. Reaction mechanism. Activation energy. Catalysis.
Chemical equilibrium. Law of mass action. Balance constant. Principle of Le Châtelier's mobile equilibrium.
Chemical transformations in aqueous solution (9 hours)
Definitions of acids and bases according to Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, Lewis. Strong and weak electrolytes. Ionic product of water, pH, pOH, pKw. Strength of acids and bases. Degree of ionization. Polyprotic acids. Common ion effect. Reactions between acids and bases. Hydrolysis of salts. pH calculation. Buffer solutions. Acid-base titrations. Slightly soluble salts and solubility product. Effect of the common ion. Influence of pH.
Electrochemistry (7 hours)
Electrochemical and electrolytic cells. Standard reduction potentials. Free energy and f.e.m .. Nernst equation. EMF and equilibrium constant.. Electrolysis and Faraday laws.

Exercises (18 hours)
Unit of measurement, dimensional analysis. Errors in measurements and significant figures. Chemical formulas. Mole and number of molecules. Atomic weight, molecular weight. Percentage composition and elementary analysis. Calculation of empirical formulas. Stoichiometry and balancing of chemical equations. Yield and limiting reagent. Reactions in aqueous solution. Gas phase reactions. Oxidation numbers. Oxidation-reduction reactions and their balancing.
Ideal gases and gas mixtures. Calculation of concentrations and stoichiometry of reactions in aqueous solution. Dilution. Colligative properties of solutions. Reaction and combustion enthalpy. Chemical equilibrium. Acidity and basicity of solutions, pH calculation. Buffer solutions.
Solubility, effect of the common ion, influence of pH. EMF of a galvanic cell.

Lessons (52 h)
Atoms, molecules and ions (6 hours)
Elemental substances, mixtures and compounds. Dalton's atomic theory, laws of chemical combinations. Mendeleev's periodic table. Atoms, chemical elements and isotopes. The modern periodic table. Molecules, compounds and molecular formulas. Molecular mass, formula weight. Avogadro number and concept of mole. Nomenclature.
Constitution and properties of matter (14 hours)
Atomic structure and outline of quantum mechanics: photoelectric effect, De Broglie relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, introduction to the Schrödinger equation. Quantum numbers and atomic orbitals. Electronic structure and properties of atoms: Pauli's principle, Hund's rule and "aufbau prinzip". Periodic properties of the elements. Ionic, covalent and metallic bond. Symbols and structure by Lewis. Rule of the octet. Resonance. Molecular geometry according to VSEPR. Valence bond theory. Hybridization and steric number. Pauling electronegativity and molecule polarity. Molecular orbitals theory. Interactions between molecules. Hydrogen bond. Weak intermolecular forces.
Physical State of matter (6 hours)
Properties of gases. Ideal gas laws. Equation of state of ideal gases. Gas mixtures and partial pressures. Non ideal gases. Properties of liquids. State transition and phase equilibria. Vapor pressure. Surface tension. Viscosity. Qualitative description of water and carbon dioxide state diagrams. Dissolution process and types of solvents most commonly used. Principles of solubility. Roult's law. Colligative properties.Ionic, covalent, molecular and metallic solids. Crystal lattices.
Control of chemical reactions (10 hours)
First law of thermodynamics. General concepts of thermochemistry and energy in chemical reactions. Enthalpy function and Hess law function. Enthalpy of formation, reaction and combustion. Second and third principle of thermodynamics: entropy state function and Gibbs free energy state function. Spontaneity of a chemical reaction. Thermodynamic description of the phase transition.
Chemical Kinetics. Speed of a chemical reaction. Reaction mechanism. Activation energy. Catalysis.
Chemical equilibrium. Law of mass action. Balance constant. Principle of Le Châtelier's mobile equilibrium.
Chemical transformations in aqueous solution (9 hours)
Definitions of acids and bases according to Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, Lewis. Strong and weak electrolytes. Ionic product of water, pH, pOH, pKw. Strength of acids and bases. Degree of ionization. Polyprotic acids. Common ion effect. Reactions between acids and bases. Hydrolysis of salts. pH calculation. Buffer solutions. Acid-base titrations. Slightly soluble salts and solubility product. Effect of the common ion. Influence of pH.
Electrochemistry (7 hours)
Electrochemical and electrolytic cells. Standard reduction potentials. Free energy and f.e.m .. Nernst equation. EMF and equilibrium constant.. Electrolysis and Faraday laws.

Exercises (18 hours)
Unit of measurement, dimensional analysis. Errors in measurements and significant figures. Chemical formulas. Mole and number of molecules. Atomic weight, molecular weight. Percentage composition and elementary analysis. Calculation of empirical formulas. Stoichiometry and balancing of chemical equations. Yield and limiting reagent. Reactions in aqueous solution. Gas phase reactions. Oxidation numbers. Oxidation-reduction reactions and their balancing.
Ideal gases and gas mixtures. Calculation of concentrations and stoichiometry of reactions in aqueous solution. Dilution. Colligative properties of solutions. Reaction and combustion enthalpy. Chemical equilibrium. Acidity and basicity of solutions, pH calculation. Buffer solutions.
Solubility, effect of the common ion, influence of pH. EMF of a galvanic cell.

- Brown, Lemay, Bursten, Murphy, Woodward “Fondamenti di Chimica” Ed. EdiSES
- Chang, Goldsby “Fondamenti di Chimica Generale” Ed. McGraw-Hill
- any university textbook on General and Inorganic Chemistry
- Stoichiometry: D'Arrigo, Famulari, Gambarotti, Scotti “Chimica: Esercizi e Casi Pratici” Ed. EdiSES

Other materials, when deemed necessary, will be made available via e-learning

The course includes lectures (6.5 CFU) and numerical exercises carried out in the classroom (1.5 CFU).
During the exercises the student will participate to the resolution of stoichiometry problems by understanding the problem, planning the solution and finally solving it. This is to promote the student's ability to evaluate reasonableness and to verify the consistency of the solution with the fundamental principles of Chemistry.

Reception time: upon appointment, as agreed via e-mail, using the official student’s address: @studenti.uninsubria.it
Professor’s e-mail address: lorella.izzo@uninsubria.it