Citology and Histology

Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Academyc year when starting the degree: 
2019/2020
Year: 
1
Academyc year when helding the course: 
2019/2020
Partizione: 
Cognomi A-L
Course type: 
Basic compulsory subjects
Credits: 
9
Period: 
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
80
Requirements: 

The course begins with elementary notions and does not require previous knowledge of biology.

Final Examination: 
Orale

The final assessment is organized in two parts:
practical exam is based on the observation, by optical microscopy, and the identification of tissues present in histological specimens. This part of the exam will be expressed as 'approved' or 'not approved'. Once passed, practical test remain valid for 12 months.
The oral interview is aimed to evaluate the knowledge acquired during the course, recognizing the ultrastructural organization of a cell, to place it in the correct biological tissue describing the function. The ability to expose the topics using appropriate definitions will be considered.

Assessment: 
Voto Finale

The course aims to provide the basis for understanding the morphological and functional characteristics of biological tissue structures starting from the molecular, supramolecular and subcellular present in an animal cell. The exercises will deepen the aspects covered in the lessons.

Expected outcomes
Acquisition of theoretical and practical skills of morphological and functional aspects of a single cells and biological tissues.
Skills acquisition application re: methodological procedures and instrumental addressed, especially in the preparation and observation of histological samples.

Learning abilities
-Acquisition of the fundamental elements of biology and histology
-Ability to comment and contextualize microphotographs of biological tissues.
-Acquisition of appropriate skills and tools to set up, examine and describe histological samples.

Cognitive skills
To develop the ability to describe, to recognize and contextualize microscopic information referring them to a macroscopic milieu.

Communication skills
- showing the ability of extracting and synthesizing the relevant information;
- showing knowledge of communicating in an effective way and with the correct terminology, both orally and in writing;
- showing the ability of summarizing and introducing the information concerning the topics faced during the course.
Specific skills
Ability to read, understand and to comment a scientific text of general biology.

The course consists in three sections:
A) Module of Cytology (3,5 CFU: 28 hours)
The animal cell with particular interest in:
Cell size, unit of measure and knowledge of microscopy (optical and electronic), preparation of biological specimens for observation in optical microscopy (light field, fluorescence) and electronics. ( 3 hours)
Chemical components of cells, the chemistry of the molecule of life, sources and use of energy: fundamentals of the laws of thermodynamics. ( 3 hours)
The biological macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids): structure, physico-chemical characteristics and functions. ( 3 hours)
Organization, characteristics and function of cellular membrane and of cytoskeleton filaments: intermediate filaments, microtubules and microfilaments. (4 hours)
Cellular compartments and their functions: nucleus, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria. ( 8 hours)
Protein sorting and transport to cell compartments. ( 3 hours)
Exocytosis, endocytosis and transcytosis processes. ( 1 hour)
Cell division of somatic cell (mitosis) and germ cell (meiosis) and genetic variability. ( 3 hours)
B) Module of Histology (4,5 CFU 36 hours)
How the cells are organized into biological tissues
Epithelial tissues simple and multi-layered: features, functions, distribution (4 hours).Cellular surface specializations (microvilli, cilia, stereo cilia and flagella) and the basolateral specializations (cell-cell junctions and cell-matrix junctions). (6 hours)
Glandular epithelial tissues: morphological and functional classification, tissue distribution. Types of secreting cells and process of secretion. (2 hours)
Characteristics, development, functions and localization of connective tissues: connective tissues dense and loose with particular attention at the extracellular matrix components, and specialized: cartilage, bone and hematopoietic bone marrow. ( 6 ore)
Characteristics, development, function, and localization of skeletal muscle (4 hours), cardiac and smooth muscle tissue with particular attention to the muscle contraction ( 3 hours) process. White, intermediate and red muscle fibers. ( 1 hour)
Characteristics, development, function, and localization of nervous tissue (2 hours) and neuroglia cells. (1 hour)
Action potential and synapses (1 hour)
Characteristics, development, function, and localization of lymphoid organs (spleen and lymph nodes) with outline to the main immune response mechanisms. ( 2 hours)

C) 1 CFU of histology laboratory (1 CFU 16 hours).
The histology laboratory consists of 8 lessons of 2 hours each. In the first lesson the students will learn to use the optical microscope, moreover, every single lesson is preceded by a brief explanation of the argument followed by the observation of histological preparations divide by topic:
- Epithelial tissues
- Glandular epithelia
- Connective tissues
- Cartilage
- Compact and spongy bone
- Adipose tissue
- Blood and lymphoid tissues
- Skeletal muscle tissue
- Cardiac muscle tissue
- Smooth muscle tissue
- Nervous tissue

The topics covered during the lectures include:

1- The animal cell with particular interest to
Cell size, unit of measure and knowledge on microscopic observation, preparation of biological specimens for observation in light (bright field, fluorescence) and electronics microscopy.
Chemical components of cells, sources and use of energy: fundamentals laws of thermodynamics,
biological macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids): structure, physico-chemical characteristics and functions.
Organization, characteristics and function of cellular membrane.
Organization, features and function of cytoskeleton protein (intermediate filaments, microtubules and microfilaments).
Cellular compartments and their functions: nucleus, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria.
The cytoplasm, chemical-physical characteristics and functions,
Protein sorting and transport to cell compartments.
Exocytosis, endocytosis and transcytosis processes.
Somatic cell division: mitosis,
Germ cell division: meiosis and genetic variability.
2-How the cells are organized in biological tissues
Epithelial tissues (simple and multi-layered), features, functions, distribution, cellular surface specializations (microvilli, cilia, stereo cilia and flagella) and the basolateral specializations (cell-cell junctions and cell-matrix junctions).
Glandular epithelial tissues: morphological and functional classification, tissue distribution. Types of secreting cells and process of secretion.
Connective tissues: characteristics, development, functions and localization of proper (dense, loose) and specialized (cartilage, bone and hematopoietic bone marrow) connective tissue, with regards to cell population and extracellular matrix components.
Characteristics, development, function, and localization of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle tissue with particular attention to the muscle contraction process.
Characteristics, development, function, and localization of nervous tissue and neuroglia cells.
Characteristics, development, function, and localization of lymphoid organs (spleen and lymph nodes) with outline to the main immune response mechanisms.

Practice program (1 Credit–16 hrs)
Microscopy laboratory
Le lessons will address to the observation by light microscopy of histological sections of:
- Epithelial tissues
- Glandular epithelia
- Connective tissues
- Cartilage
- Compact and spongy bone
- Adipose tissue
- Blood and lymphoid tissues
- Skeletal muscle tissue
- Cardiac muscle tissue
- Smooth muscle tissue
- Nervous tissue

The support of a text of University level (please no books from High School) is necessary. The recommended book are:
“Biologia Cellula e Tessuti” AUTORI VARI, 2° edizione a cura di R. COLOMBO e E. OLMO Editore: EdiErmes Anno edizione: 2014.
Il libro consigliato per approfondimenti di microscopia elettronica è:
“Bloom & Fawcett trattato di Istologia” D.W. Fawcett, McGraw-Hill XII ed.
Le diapositive proiettate durante il corso sono a disposizione dello studente sul sito e-learning.
Per le esercitazioni
“Istologia ed elementi di anatomia microscopica” AUTORI VARI Editore: EdiSES.
“Anatomia microscopica funzionale dei visceri umani” Manrico Morroni, Editore: EdiErmes

8 CFU of lectures (64 HOURS). the arguments are carried out with the help of presentations (including films) projected in the classroom.
1 CFU of histology laboratory (1 CFU, 16 hours). The laboratory module will be held at the microscopy laboratory located at the Morselli Pavilion for a maximum of 30 students per shift. Each pair of students is given a box containing the histological preparations (to be returned at the end of the lesson). During the laboratory module continuous assistance in the classroom is assured by the teacher, or assistant, and at least one tutor. Students are reminded that attendance at educational workshops is mandatory and that absence is allowed only for a number of hours not exceeding 25% of the course of the didactic laboratory program

Tutorials
At the end of every lesson, or upon appointment via email using the official student’s address: @studenti.uninsubria.it

Professors

RIZZI MANUELA

Parent course