Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOTECHNOLOGY
Academyc year when starting the degree: 
Academyc year when helding the course: 
Course type: 
Compulsory subjects, characteristic of the class
First Semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (48 hours)

The course will require key competence in mathematical, physical, chemistry basis. Knowledge of Animal Biology and Cell biology is also required.

Final Examination: 

The exam is the oral exposition about all issues of the course.
The final score is given in 30ths: the examination is successful if a score ≥ 18/30

Voto Finale

The course is programmed in second year and is part of the physiological and pathological training of the study program in Biotechnology.
The goal of the course is to provide the key competence of physiological processes and functional responses of animal organisms at different levels of complexity. The physiology of the cell and its molecular structures will be studied starting from the fundamental role of the membrane and its proteins. Physiological functions in the complex organization of tissues, organs and systems will be analyzed particularly in mammals and humans.
Some pathological aspects will also be considered. The aim of the course is to provide to the student the knowledge of the main physiological aspects and the capability to link the cellular and molecular mechanisms to the functions of all body.
At the end of the course, the student will develop the ability to integrate knowledge at a multidisciplinary level in the physiological field and will acquire the accurate scientific language requires to in biological and physiological issues in the medical/scientific field. Moreover, the students will acquire the capability of interpreting graphs representing the physiological and scientific phenomena

Introduction- Homeostasis Feedback (negative and positive) internal and external environment- permeability and membrane transports
Membranes structure and regulation, compositions, membrane protein, membrane organization. Diffusion, membrane flux, active transport and facilitated diffusion, epithelial transport. Electric property of the membrane, Nerst and Goldman Equation, Donnan Equilibrium, Resting and action potential, Voltage clamp, ion channels Patch clamp and single channel recordings.
Signal transduction, Signal propagation Synapse, Synaptic Receptor and channel, Synaptic plasticity, LTP and LTD
Messenger and regulatory protein, Membrane signal transduction, metabotropic receptor, G protein, Calcium and cAMP
Muscle and Movements, Sarcomere structure, sliding filament theory, regulation of contraction, Role of Calcium, Mechanisms of muscle contraction, Cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
Nervous systems evolution, Central nervous systems and central control, peripheral nervous system, the autonomic nervous system, sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system.
Homeostasis, Endocrine System, the physiological effect of hormones, Control of Nutrition, water and saline balance, metabolic and developmental hormones, reproductive hormones, Circadian rhythms and biological clocks
Circulation and the heart, general plan of the circulatory system, the Mechanical property of the heart, Electric activity and coronary circulation, Hemodynamics, the peripheral circulation, the lymphatic system, capillary, control of the central cardiovascular system
Gas Exchange, oxide and carbon dioxide in the blood, respiratory pigments, lung in vertebrates.
Ionic and osmotic balance, the balance of water and salt, osmoregulation organs, vertebrate kidney, Henle loop, excretion of nitrogenous wastes.
Feeding digestion adsorption, alimentary system, nutrients, alimentary canal, motility, structure, gastrointestinal secretion, absorption.
Metabolism and temperature relations, the energy of locomotion and environmental influence.

«Fisiologia Umana Elementi», Edi-Ermes Milano 2019
«Fisiologia Umana Fondamenti», Edi-Ermes Milano 2018
"Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach, 7th Edition
Dee Unglaub Silverthorn, University of Texas, Austin Pearson
«Fisiologia» E. D’Angelo & A Peres, Edi-Ermes Milano 2011

«Fisiologia umana» Un approccio integrato • 7/Ed. • Con Mastering A&PDee Unglaub Silverthorn- Pearson 2017
Didactic material, slide and video in e-elarning site


72 hours lectures, the topics in the classroom is carried out with the help of projected presentations, supplemented by the projection of educational films, in many cases in English. Students activities are proposed aimed at understanding the topics covered and for exam preparation. Some work will be done in the classroom with the active participation of students for the formulating basic concept maps for the oral exam

Student reception
By appointment (via e-mail requests). The teacher responds only to emails signed and coming from the @ domain.
The teacher is available for clarification about the topics covered by the course