Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in BIOTECHNOLOGY
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Basic compulsory subjects
Second semester
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (40 hours), Laboratory (16 hours)

Even if it is not mandatory to have passed any examinations. Several notions of of Biochemistry (metabolic patwhay of central metabolism), Genetics (mutations, selection of mutants, recombination processes in prokaryotes) and of Molecular Biology (DNA replication, transcription, translation) are required.

Final Examination: 

Examinations will be planned to follow the rules of the Course.
Oral examination will be aimed at verifying the following skills:
1. Showing techniques and description of experienced performed in laboratory lessons
2. Description of morphological/functional and biochemical features of prokaryotic cells
3. Being able to describe the catabolic diversity among microorganisms
4. Description of the roles of microorganisms on earth
5. Being aware of the potential applications of prokaryotes biology as regards the health, the environment, and the industry.
It is necessary to know and describe the structure of prokaryotic cells and the techniques to cultivate bacteria in order to pass the exam. The evaluation will increase depending on the knowledge and the level of in depth analysis of the fundamentals of microbiology, both as concepts and techniques. It will be evaluated the ability to link different topics and being able to communicate, using a scientifically correct language.

Voto Finale

The course is focused on the biology of bacterial microorganisms. Information on morphological, physiological, biochemical and functional features of microorganisms will be shown in order to appreciate their potential in biotechnological applications. The acquired knowledge will complete the training of an expert able to use microorganisms in different fields, from pharmaceuticals to agricultural and food, from industry to bioremediation.

At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. Describe the morphological/functional features of prokaryotic cells
2. Highlight the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
3. Describe the catabolic biodiversity of microorganisms
4. Correlate the specific metabolic pathway to bacterial groups
5. Explain the traditional microbiological techniques
6. Recognize the importance of microorganisms in applied sciences

- Microbial cell structure and function (cell wall, flagellum, fimbriae, pili, cytoplasm, nucleoid, inclusions)
- Microbial growth (nutritional classes of microorganisms, population growth, measuring microbial growth, effects of environmental factors on microbial growth)
- Metabolism (energy production, chemiotrophy, fermentation, aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, chemiolitotrophy, photosynthesis)
- Systematics (species concept in microbiology, classification and nomenclature, conventional and molecular taxonomy methods)
- Bacterial genetics (Microbial genomes. Chromosome, plasmids, and other genetic elements.
- Microbial interactions with humans (normal human microflora, pathogenic bacteria, reservoirs and transmission, pathogenicity and virulence, virulence factors, endotoxins and esotoxins)
- Antibiotics (Mechanisms of action, methods for evaluating bacteria sensitivity to antibiotics)
- Virus (general properties)

The power point files of lessons will be on E-learning platform.
The teacher suggests the following book: Dehò & Galli. Biologia dei microrganismi. CEA.


The teaching activities are based on lectures and practical laboratory lessons.
- Lectures are supported by slides and films.
- For lab activities each student will be given a descriptive booklet and the protocol. During the lab activities the continuous presence of instructors is ensured. Students must wear a coat, other devices for personal protection will be supplied. Safety rules in a microbiological laboratory and basic microbiological techniques will be acquired (aseptical techniques, solid and liquid cultures Gram stain, bacterial identification, viable count).

Students may contact the teacher via e-mail at the following address: