Degree course: 
Corso di First cycle degree in Nursing
Academic year when starting the degree: 
Academic year in which the course will be held: 
Course type: 
Basic compulsory subjects
Seat of the course: 
Varese - Università degli Studi dell'Insubria
Second semester
Ore minime di frequenza: 
Standard lectures hours: 
Detail of lecture’s hours: 
Lesson (15 hours)

Knowledge of the topics presented in the classes of the first semester is recommended, but it is not mandatory that the related exams have been passed.

Understanding both the general pharmacology module requires basic knowledge of general chemistry and biochemical propagation and organ anatomy and physiology (particularly kidney function, digestive system, cardiovascular function) given in other courses.

The examination of the integrated course is unique, as for all integrated courses, and includes the two disciplines that are part of it. Note that:
- the final vote is unique, and represents the average for the assessments obtained in the two disciplines;
- insufficiency in a discipline compromises the outcome of the whole exam, which must be repeated with a new registration.
The exam consists of multiple choice and/or open-ended questions. Additional oral questions/discussion may occur according to the evaluation of the written text.

Voto Finale

Approaching the own language and method of experimental life sciences. Knowing the molecular basis of biological phenomena, mostly those important in physiology, diseases, and clinical practice, at the level of cells, tissues and total body. In particular, the general principles of interaction between human organism and medicines under different conditions, and their mechanism of action. Moreover, setting correct dosing and drug-related risk assessment related to various factors (administration, adverse effects, drug intolerance, pharmacological interactions), interpretation and application of legislative provisions for the conservation of use of drugs and the development of clinical trials for the discovery of new drugs. In the end, criteria for the management and use of medicines in hospital.

Carbohydrate metabolism.
Lipid metabolism.
Metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds.
Metabolic interactions.

- Pharmacokinetic Exercises (10 hours). the main routes of drug administration, and the pharmacokinetic processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of drugs in healthy subjects, in patients, during pregnancy and in puerperium. Quantitative pharmacokinetic topics will also be used to set a correct dose, such as distribution volume, clearance, half life, maintenance dose, and loading dose. The concept of bioavailability and the equivalent drug will be addressed.
- Pharmacodynamic properties (6 hours): the main mechanisms underlying drug action. They will also discuss the theoretical basis for the interpretation of drug action by imparting the concepts of agonist, antagonist, partial agonist. Dosage-response curves that allow you to interpret efficacy and pharmacological potency. Drug-toxicology topics will be addressed to interpret toxic drug effects, drug interactions, abuse, tolerance, addiction.
-Examples of pharmaceutical legislation, experimentation (4 hours). The main laws in force in Italy and the European Union concerning the production, classification of medicines, prescription and pharmacovigilance. Preclinical and clinical studies will also be described for the discovery of new drugs.

1) Carbohydrates: mono- and polysaccharides. Glycogen metabolism
2) Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis and their regulation, hexose monophosphate shunt
3) Lipids. Fatty acids, triglycerides and phospholipids. Beta-oxidation of fatty acids
4) Biosynthesis of fatty acids and triglycerides, Cholesterol and steroid hormones
5) General metabolism of aminoacids and nitrogen-containing compounds; Transamination and oxidative deamination
6) Nucleic acids; nitrogenous bases and nucleotides
7) Metabolic interactions: feed-starve cycle, biochemical aspects of diabetes. Vitamins and iron metabolism

All didactic material presented in the classes as well the one necessary for the preparation of the examination (slides, pantries, exercises) is available in the e-learning platform.

Textbook suggested according to the individual preferences (written in Italian).
M. Samaja, R. Paroni - Chimica e Biochimica per le lauree triennali dell’area biomedica – Piccin editore
Champe PC, Harvey RA, Ferrier DR – Le basi della biochimica – Zanichelli (more details and points of view)

General and clinical pharmacology. Katzung B.G. Piccin Ed IX edition on the XII edition of English language
Pharmacology. Rang, Dale, Ritter, Flower, Henderson. Elsevier Ed. VII edition

The class consists of lectures (each one takes usually 2 hours) that cover the entire exam program. Also available on the e-learning platform are exercises, handouts and on-line facilities about the class topics.

The Biochemistry part of the exam consists of open-ended questions of progressive difficulty, aimed at ascertaining the knowledge of basic information and concepts, according to a criterion of essentiality. The answers are expected to be synthetic, straightforward, and exhaustive. The time available for the test is 45 minutes. The evaluation of the reports will only highlight errors, deficiencies, and incompleteness. The correct formulation of the answers will be presented collectively, immediately after each student's vision of his/her paper already evaluated.

In exam sessions that include two appeals, it is advisable to plan to enroll in only one of them.