SCIENZE BIOMEDICHE 2
- Assessment methods
- Learning objectives
- Teaching methods
To attend the course, students must have followed the two previous integrated courses (chemistry and biochemical propedeutics) and general biology
Understanding both the general pharmacology module requires basic knowledge of general chemistry and biochemical propagation and organ anatomy and physiology (particularly kidney function, digestive system, cardiovascular function) given in other courses.
TEACHING VERIFICATION MODES
The exam will have to be supported in two appeals, the first part will be on the topics of chemistry and propedeutic biochemistry and general biology, the second will be about biochemistry and pharmacology. The average of the two appeals will be the final vote. However, you will not be considered to have passed the exam if the test is overcome with sufficient voting only on a subject, and the student will have to repeat the tests on the two modules the next call.
The examination for the biochemistry module consists of 30 multiple choice questions (five possible answers of which only one is true and identifiable by the student) regarding the understanding of the topics discussed. Evaluation will be insufficient if correct answers will be less than 18. No points will be removed for incorrect answers.
The exam on the Pharmacy Module consists of 27 statements regarding the different topics discussed, which the student must indicate whether true or false. The test also provides for the elaboration of a subject covered during the course. For the evaluation, any correct statement of the "true or false" test will be worth a point and no points will be removed as a result of incorrect answers. The open question can be from a minimum of 3 points to a maximum of 3 points. For a sufficient rating (18), the sum of the votes obtained in the "true or false" test and the one obtained in the open question will be 18/30. At the student's request, the works will be available to students for one week from the examination date and then permanently archived.
At the request of the students, the works will be available to the students until the date of the next application and then permanently archived for a period of five years.
The course aims to provide the student with information on basic biochemistry concepts, including structural biochemistry, major metabolic cycles and biologically important molecules such as vitamins, hormones and oxygen transducers. In all the subjects will be extrapolated aspects of specific medical interest, which will be addressed in particular with references to particular situations of obstetric interest. The course aims to provide a solid basis for molecular knowledge on which further concepts can be on clinical and theoretical obstetrical preparation.
The course aims to provide the student with information on the general principles of interaction between human organism and medicines in healthy subjects, patients, pregnancy and childbirth and their mechanism of action. Knowledge will also be provided on the setting correct dosing and drug-related risk assessment related to various factors (administration, adverse effects, drug intolerance, and pharmacological interactions), interpretation and application of legislative provisions for the conservation of use of drugs and the development of clinical trials for the discovery of new drugs. The course aims to provide pharmacological and toxicological bases for the management and use of medicines in hospital.
Content of the course
Carbohydrates: nomenclature and classification of aldose and ketosis. Proteins: Chemical Amino Acids Classification. Peptide bond and physical chemical characteristics. Protein structure, Lipids: Simple lipids: fatty acids. Complex Lipids Node on the structure of biological membranes. Cholesterol and its derivatives. The structural organization of biological membranes. Oxygen Conveyors: Structural and Functional Properties Enzymes: Properties and Enzymatic Kinetics. Enzyme Inhibition. Regulatory enzymes: allosteric enzymes and enzymes regulated covalently. Metabolism: generality, features of bioenergetics. The "energy charge". The respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Activating glucose. Glycogen metabolism. Glycolysis and control mechanisms. The pyruvic acid oxidative decarboxylation. The gluconeogenesis and control mechanisms. Oxygenation of fatty acids. The Krebs cycle, its energy balance, and control mechanisms. Anaplerotic reactions. Metabolism of amino acids. Mechanisms of defense against the toxicity of ammonia: urea cycle. The ketone bodies. Metabolic adaptations in fasting. Hormones: general properties and mechanisms of action.
- Pharmacokinetic Exercises (10 hours). the main routes of drug administration, and the pharmacokinetic processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of drugs in healthy subjects, in patients, during pregnancy and in puerperium. Quantitative pharmacokinetic topics will also be used to set a correct dose, such as distribution volume, clearance, half life, maintenance dose, and loading dose. The concept of bioavailability and the equivalent drug will be addressed.
- Pharmacodynamic properties (6 hours): the main mechanisms underlying drug action. They will also discuss the theoretical basis for the interpretation of drug action by imparting the concepts of agonist, antagonist, partial agonist. Dosage-response curves that allow you to interpret efficacy and pharmacological potency. Drug-toxicology topics will be addressed to interpret toxic drug effects, drug interactions, abuse, tolerance, addiction.
-Examples of pharmaceutical legislation, experimentation (4 hours). The main laws in force in Italy and the European Union concerning the production, classification of medicines, prescription and pharmacovigilance. Preclinical and clinical studies will also be described for the discovery of new drugs.
Nelson et al: Introduction to Biochemistry by Lehninger Zanichelli
Ferrier DR The basics of biochemistry Zanichelli
General and clinical pharmacology. Katzung B.G. Piccin Ed IX edition on the XII edition of English language
Pharmacology. Rang, Dale, Ritter, Flower, Henderson. Elsevier Ed. VII edition
Frontal lessons are foreseen for the course, which include slides projection (in Italian, but in case of recent material, also in English). During classroom discussions, students are encouraged to interact with teachers with questions and curiosities. During lectures, lecturers will also present everyday cases and facts that can make the application / importance of the subject matter understandable. Students are required to attend the lessons as set out in the teaching regulations of the course and sign the attendance sheet to be able to take the exam. Teachers are committed to making available presentations to lessons and other material of interest (articles) through the University's computerized platforms (eg elearning) to which students have access.
For the course of frontal lectures involving slides projection (tendency in Italian, but in cases of recent publication material, also in English). During classroom discussions, students are encouraged to interact with teachers with questions and curiosities. During lectures, lecturers will also present everyday cases and facts that can make it clear the application / importance of the subjects of the lessons. Students are required to attend the lessons as set out in the teaching regulations of the course and sign the attendance sheet to be able to take the exam. Teachers are committed to making available presentations to lessons and other material of interest (articles) through the University's computerized platforms (eg elearning) to which students have access.
In the presentations of the teacher there may be links to web pages for further information. For student reception, make an appointment via email with the teachers.
Student Reception: appointment by e-mail.